1 of 3 Options for Playing the Value Add Basketball Game
The following detailed instructions are one of three options for following the directions to play the Value Add Basketball Game. The most popular instructions are these Quick Start instructions used by more than 30,000 as of April 2020. If you use google docs, you can click here to access the combined instructions that contain both the Quick Start instructions and the detailed instructions in this document - and it is much easier to find specific items because the pages are numbered to correspond with the numbers on the Table of Contents below. However, if you do not (or prefer not to) use Google Docs then this blog provides all the same detailed instructions not in the Quick Start instructions to walk through the entire set-up of the game and find advanced rules and clarifications by looking down the Table of Contents for the info you want - then searching for those words in the document.
Table of Contents: Advanced Rules, Instructions 5
What you need to start playing 8
4 Dice (one 20-sided, one 8-sided) 8
Print player cards for 2 teams 8
Setting up the Game 9
Choose 5 starters for each team 9
Choose the Point Guard and place at the top of the 5 cards 9
Determine which starter should play SG, SF, PF and C 9
Choosing your shooting guard – SG (2) 10
Choosing your forwards – SF (3) and PF (4) 10
Choose your center – C (5) 10
Setting up the Scoresheet 10
Write the starters in the top 5 spots of the scoresheet 10
Choose when (and if) to use reserves 10
.Option 1 (Simple) – Use starters for the whole game 11
Option 2 (Basic) – Play reserves for the 1st 7 possessions (44 to 38) 11
Option 3 (Advanced) – Rotate Players to Reflect Normal Play Time 12
Using the Score Sheet to track the Game 13
Write in both teams and their dunk ranges 13
Determine dunk range from no dunk range (51-50) to 51-56 14
If Below 50-51, the Dunk Range Becomes a Stop Range 14
Tracking player stats (top of score sheet) 14
Tracking the running score starting at 20-20 (bottom of score sheet) 15
Basic result ending by adding 0, 1, 2 or 3 (or more) to previous score 15
Keeping track of an extended possession 15
Recording the last 9 possessions above the diagonal line 16
Rolling the dice to determine the result of each possession 17
Read the 8-sided die to see which player gets ball. 17
Each roll can either go to the corresponding position (1-5) or to various other positions in different circumstances on a 6, 7 or 8. 17
Rolls of 1-5 go to the corresponding position and his defender 17
Rolls of 6, 7 or 8 17
Player grabs offensive rebound and chooses to try for a stick back basket 18
In most cases, player with 6, 7 or 8 on card gets ball 18
Different Defensive Players on Rolls of 6, 7 or 8 or changing defenders 20
Defense chooses to switch defenders 20
Roll of 31 or 32 rolled for possible steal or blocked shot of any player 20
IMPORTANT - Rolls on 6, 7, 8 are “Team” defense for Steals or Blocks 21
Read 11-66 Dice Roll 22
Look at Offensive Card on rolls of 41-16 22
Look at Defender’s card on 11-36 roll for steal, block or foul 22
Read the 20-sided die (if no result on 11-66 dice roll) 25
20-sided roll falls in “made 3-pt shot” 25
20-sided roll falls in “made 2-pt shot” 26
Fouled, roll 20-sided for free throws 26
Missed 3-pointer 26
Missed 2-pointer 26
Roll of 20 on the 20-sided die 27
Possible rolls if possession is still alive AFTER the 4-dice roll 27
Times in which fewer than all four dice are rolled 28
ADVANCED GAME OPTION - Roll only 3 dice (skip 20-sided) to intentionally foul 28
ADVANCED GAME OPTION – Roll 8-sided die first, then others 28
Roll 20-sided and one 6-sided die for Rebound Chart 29
20-sided die determines which player has first chance at rebound 29
6-sided die determines if the player gets the rebound 29
Offensive Options after Grabbing Offensive Rebounds 30
ADVANCED RULE – Home Court Advantage 31
36 when away team has the ball is a turnover rather than a foul 31
66 when home team has ball, false foul called on defender 31
The only purchase necessary to play the Value Add Basketball Game (VABG) is one 8-sided die (yellow in Addendum 3), two 6-sided die of different colors (in photo red is the "10" column and white is the "1" column for a roll of "32"), and a 20-sided die (green in photo).
Click on the scoresheet in Addendum 4 and print out copies for each game you want to play.
In addition to the links above, we maintain any updates on new teams on the website at to play a game right now.
Once you have printed out the score sheet and player cards and have the four dice, you are ready to set up for a game. You can also review this video of setup:
On the Quick Start (Addendum 2, 3 and 4) we already line up the player cards from top (point guard) to bottom (center) for a sample game.
The following are the considerations for who starts; 1) on some card editions 5 players include the word “starter” or “reserve” as recommendations, while in other cases the player’s with the highest “Stamina” or the same figure represented by the number of possession played out of the 44 possessions in the game. For example, if a player has “Stamina: 37” or “Plays 37 of 44” it indicates the same thing, the player will get tired if he plays more than 37 possessions and not be effective.
A team with no true point guard on the court turns the ball over a lot in the game, so this should be avoided if at all possible. On different cards the letters “PG” may appear near the top in one of a couple of places, or on other cards numbers are listed near the top by the position and either a “0” or “1” means the player can play point guard. (That number is based on assists divided by defensive rebounds, so a 1 or lower is a point guard, while a 5 or higher is a center). You can use players at any position, BUT if the player in the point guard (PG) position at the top of the 5 players in the game does not at least one of those items – one or more “PG” or a 0 or 1 by the position spot then the team is playing without a point guard.
The point guards often have higher turnover ranges than other positions because they need to handle the ball so often, but if you do not use a point guard you will have many more turnovers than even a point guard with the worse possible turnover range (41-46).
Once you identify your point guard for the top spot, you can choose the order of the other four starters to stack them in order. You can put the players in any order regardless of suggested positions on the card and you might even choose to play several guards and center (if you needed more steals and 3-point shots late in a game because you are trailing). The suggested positions on most set of cards are based on the assists to defensive rebound ratio, but in 2020 we went through an extensive calculation by of the positions players were actually playing in games and used that position unless we needed to move a player in order for a team to have enough possessions at each position. The following is the normal guide for making your team as strong as possible:
The highest steal range (e.g. 11-16) are most valuable at PG and SG because guards always have the option of running fast breaks when they steal the ball. It is better to hide a low offensive or defensive rebound range (e.g. 1-1) because the guards get fewer opportunities to try for rebounds.
The forwards are the balance between guards and the center. They can fast break on some steals (odd numbered 11, 13, 15 or 31) and get more chances at rebounds than guards but fewer chances than centers. Therefore pick your center and your guards first and the forwards should be the two players remaining.
Choose the player with the best rebound ranges (e.g. 1-6) since they get the most chances at rebounds, and the steals are less important since they can never start fast breaks if they get a steal.
Go to Addendum 1 and print out the scoresheet. There are two basic halves to the scoresheet, the top half where the names of players are listed and their stats tracked, and the bottom half of the score sheet where a running score is kept of the game. We advise making the bottom half the official score of the game to be sure that is updated with each possession and if there is any variation between the number of points recorded by the players in the top half and the running score that the running score determines the final (if distracted it is possible to accidentally record a player scoring twice or believing you already recorded a score when you have not – which occasionally leads to the top and bottom half being a couple of points off).
In addition to stacking the five starters from top to bottom on a table, write in the five names in the top 5 spots of the scoresheet in order by the positions listed.
Once your five starters are placed in order and written on the scoresheet, you can choose when (or if) to use other cards as reserves
The easiest way to play the game is to simply use the five starters for the whole game as we do in our sample Quick Start game below. You may notice that the game starts with a 20-20 score with 44 possessions remaining in the game, and each player is given certain stats that are assumed to have occurred during the first 22 possessions of the game. The player starts at the start of the game must equal 20 points and 13 rebounds for each team.
The scoresheet crosses off numbers for each player including two points for each player (most important), one rebound and one steal for each starting guard and two rebounds but no steals for each forward and center. If you choose to play a game with only starters then you need to add two points and one rebound for each player – so all five starters start with four points and the guards start with two rebounds and centers and forwards with three rebounds.
At that point your scoresheet is set up and you are ready to play.
In this case, the only time a reserve would be used is if a starter accumulates 5 fouls and needs to be replaced, at which point you would pick a reserve card to put on top of that player’s card for the remainder of the game and write in that player on the scoresheet in a reserve spot, but he would not enter the game with any points or rebounds.
If you use reserves it is always easier to try to have the starters FINISH the game rather than start at the 44th possession.
If you choose to use reserves but keep it simple, then put all reserves in their most logical position (making sure to have a point guard in the game) on the top of the starter’s card that corresponds, so that you can use all reserves for the first 8 possessions and then at the conclusion of the 38th possession for both teams, discard all reserves at once and play the rest of the game with the starters for both teams.
The 2020 cards were the first set in which some players have more than 10 player cards, so if a team you are using has 11 players pick which one will not play at all – normally a player with a low stamina (e.g. “Stamina: 5” or “Plays 5 of 44 possessions”).
Many teams have fewer than 10 players, in which case at least one starter would play the entire game. Generally the player(s) you choose to play the whole game and not have a reserve’s cards placed on top of his card would be the player(s) with the highest stamina (e.g. “Stamina: 44” or “Plays 44 of 44 possessions”).
For the most accurate results, do not use any player for more possessions than specified by his stamina. For example, “Stamina 27” or “Plays 27 of 44” means he gets tired if he plays a 28th possession or more dice rolls are adjusted to make him less effective because he is tired.
While the dice rolls are reviewed below, the bottom line once a player is tired is that EVERY dice roll that is referred to on the player’s card is adjusted one against him. This means; 1) one is ADDED to a 20-sided die roll to make it less likely to hit a 3-pointer and more likely to miss a shot completely; 2) one is added to an 11-36 roll on defense to make him less likely to steal or block a shot but more likely to foul; 3) one is subtracted from a 41-46 roll on his card to make him more likely he will turn the ball over.
Some teams are simple to rotate, because they have one logical starting point guard with a Stamina of perhaps 40, and a logical reserve point guard with 4 or high stamina, and so you play the reserve for possessions 44, 43, 42 and 41 and then play the starting point guard from the 40th possession through the possession No. 1 (last possession at the end of the scoresheet).
On the scoresheet it will make it easier to write in small numbers or on the player cards which possessions that player will be in the game at which position since it can get more confusing with certain players entering or leaving at different times.
Some of the older all-time greats default to having all starters with stamina’s of 37 and all reserves with stamina’s of 7 since no minutes played were recorded for those teams and that is the all-time average time played by starters (keep in mind that since the game starts assuming starters and reserves each played 11 of the first 22 possessions resulting in the 20-20 starting score, the actual historical average is that the average starter plays enough minutes for 48 of 66 possessions, leaving the average reserve 18 of 66 possessions).
The 2020 cards include suggested times and positions already printed on the card to make it easier.
As you will see from those cards, the substitutions for some teams is much more comfortable, because certain reserves need to play multiple positions. For example, if the starting center had a stamina of 41 (so needed a reserve for 3 possessions) and a power forward had a 42 (so needed a reserve for 2 possessions) and a starting small forward had a 35 (so needed a reserve for 9 possessions) but the team had one reserve who was the best back-up at all three possessions and had a stamina of 14 or higher then he can be the only reserve used for those three positions. However, this two of the starters need to start in the game and then come out, and go back in as the reserve moves from position to position.
You can go in any order, but one way to rotation would be to have the reserve play the following possessions; 44-42 at center, 41-40 at power forward and finally 39-31 at small forward. In turn, the enter could still play from 41-1 like we do with starters on Option 1 and 2, but the starting power forward would play 44-42 and then 39-1, and the small forward could play 44-40 and then 30-1. It will be easier to play out the game if you write these numbers either on the player cards or on the scoresheet by the player so that you can check as you go through the game if you suddenly notice a player should already be out of the game. (The 2020 player card set includes our suggested ranges printed on the card).
By planning and following the rotation schedule most teams will not have a player run out of stamina during the game. However, there are a few exceptions; 1) occasionally a team does not have the total 220 possessions on their roster – likely because someone left the team during the season, 2) if a player fouls out you may need to bring a player in the game to finish at that position even if that player already used up his stamina, or 3) Sometimes you decide to strategically use a player who is tired either because you need a 3-point shooter or player with lots of steals near the end to catch up or in my all-time tournament. For example, used Draymond Greene’s freshman card for twice as many possessions as Coach Tom Izzo did on the 2009 Michigan State team because even tired he was a great player.
As referenced above, if a player is used (whether by choice or necessity) after his stamina is gone then all dice rolls on his card are adjusted against him. If a player is used for more than twice as many possessions as his Stamina (e.g. a player with a Stamina of 5 plays his 11th possession) then all dice rolls are adjusted by 2 against him.
Once you determine your line-ups using Option 1, 2 or 3 above you are ready to begin to play and record the results on the score sheet (Addendum 1).
In addition to writing the name of each team at the top of the scoresheet, it simplified the game to also write their “dunk range” at the top. The dunk range and a figure adjusting the opposing teams dunk range is the key calibration to adjust for the level of opposing offenses and defenses faced by a team. For example, if a player who faced SWAC opponents and a player who faced ACC opponents all year had the exact same stats then their cards would be exactly the same – even though the ACC player would actually be much better because he did it against tougher competition. The dunk range is a precise measurement of how much we would adjust the card to determine how well the ACC player would have done against SWAC opponents or vice versa.
The dunk range and defensive adjustment are the same for every player on the team unless you are mixing players for an All-Conference or All-Star team, so it is easier to put the figure by the team.
The average dunk range is 51-53 and the average defensive adjustment is 0 so in that case you would write a “51-53” by the team and know that anytime that roll came up on the 11-66 dice roll the player scored without checking other results (see details under dice rolls). If the same team with a 51-53 faced a new opponent with a defensive adjustment of -2 then the dunk range would be reduced to just 51.
If after subtracting the defensive adjustment from the dunk range the resultant number is below 50, then the Dice Chart indicates what range is in a “Stop Range” instead of a Dunk Range. For example, a good team might be able to dunk any time a roll is between 51-54. The lesser team they are playing might automatically have a STOP every time the roll is in a range of perhaps 51-52 – in which case the player automatically misses a shot and the player guarding him gets a rebound. This is all referenced on the Dice Chart.
Once the game starts you can use dashes or lines to record scores. If a player scores a 3-pointer skip two point numbers and check the third one so you will know it was a 3-pointer, skip one on a 2-pointer so you will know after it was a two pointers, and check every number on a free throw even if making two or three in one trip to the line so you will know after the game that those were free throws. We use a diagonal line for most scores, but if it is a free throw after a basket scored then we use a straight line to know it was a basket and free throw on the same play.
The other events tracked on the scoresheet provided are rebounds, steals, blocked shots and fouls by the players, and then one team line for turnovers. We do not track missed shots on this sheet.
You can use your own player scoresheet for player stats if you like it better, but the bottom half of the scoresheet is needed for the game because it includes the information on how to determine who gets the rebound after all missed shots.
The most important half of the score sheet and the part you must use is the bottom half, which allows you to track the running score and gives you an immediate check on who gets the rebound after missed shots.
Add 0 and repeat team’s score from previous possession. Simply repeat the number from the possession above once the other team gets the ball if there was no score. For example, the team misses a shot and defense grabs a rebound, or the team turns the ball over on their own card (41-46 range) or the other team steals the ball (11-16 or 31 range).
Add 1 if player makes the second of two free throws only, or makes the first free throw and his missed second free throw is rebounded by the defense.
Add 2 points if he scores a 2-point basket or makes both free throws.
Add 3 points if he scores a 3-point basket or makes all 3 free throws after being fouled on a 3-point miss.
While a possession ends under the scenarios in the previous section, an offensive rebound or foul after a shoot can all require you to keep track of what has happened during a possession that is still live
If a player misses a shot on a shaded possession the possession is not over, so it helps to write a small dash to indicate the team has not scored but you are rolling two dice (see below on dice rolls) to see if the team gets an offensive rebound to try to score again. If the defense gets the rebound then end the possession and update the score as indicated in the previous possession. Occasionally this can happen more than once, if a team gets an offensive rebound, and misses again, but grabs another offensive rebound etc.
If a team scores but still has the ball then it helps to write a small “1,” “2,” or “3” in the box to remember to give them credit for those points and then add any additional points before the possession ends. For example, a player scores a 2- or 3-point shot and is fouled, so a “2” or “3” is written, and then an extra point can be added if he makes the free throw or if he misses the free throw and a teammate gets the offensive rebound then the small number is a remind to add those points to any points scored after the offensive rebound. The same thing can happen if a player makes the first free throw (for a small “1” in the box) and then misses the second free throw and the same scenario occurs.
Normally the last nine possessions are recorded exactly as possessions 44 to 10 are recorded, except the updated score is written in the top left half of the possession box. If that happens on all 9 possessions and none of the bottom right half of those 9 possessions are used then the game will last 44 possessions (66 counting the 22 possessions we assume led to the 20-20 score).
However, two results lead to also using the bottom portion of the box for an extra possession.
Foul adds possession during last 9 possessions
If either (or both) team fouls during the possession of the top half of the 9th through 1st possession, then both teams will get an extra roll with the results recorded in the bottom right portion.
Steal and Fast Break adds possession during last 9 possessions
Anytime a guard steals the ball, or a forward steals the ball on a steal roll of 11, 13, 15 or 31, the team has the option of running a fast break instead of a normal offense (see rules below). If either team steals the ball during the top half of possession 9 to 1 then both teams get an extra roll in the bottom half. If the visiting team steals and runs a fast break then the next roll is recorded in the bottom of their portion of the box. If the home team steals the ball then their result will go in the top half but make a note to remember the visiting team will then start in the bottom half
Note that you can never “double up” to create more than one extra possession. For example, if one team fouls and the other steals and runs a fast break, you still only have one total extra possession for each team in the bottom of the possession box. Likewise, if one of those things happens while playing the bottom half of a box, even if you get another foul or steal and fast break it does not add another possession below. Once the bottom half possessions are complete, you go to the top of the next possession and only if another foul or steal-fast break can add a new possession on the bottom half of that new box.
Also keep in mind that the game will normally end once the offense completes their possession on the top half of the No. 1 possession, but if the Away team fouls them or steals it and can run a fast break they can extend the game to the bottom half of the 1 possession (which also happens if the home team ran a fast break or fouled when the away team rolled for their “1” possession.
Therefore, while the game is officially 66 possessions, if a foul or steal-fast break occurred on the top half of all 9 possessions by either or both teams, then a regulation game could extend to 75 possessions (53 actually played out in the game plus the 22 assumed for the 20-20 start, as opposed to the minimum 44 actually played).
As indicated in the Dice Chart and Sample Game at the front, the vast majority of the game is played by rolling all four dice at a time. The 8-sided die determines who gets the ball, the two 6-sided dice give a result between 11 and 66 to cross reference on the table below, and then if nothing happens on the chart below, refer to the 20-sided die roll on the offensive player’s card.
The Dice Chart explains what happen based on the 11-66 roll, but the following is a further explanation of how the 8-sided die roll determines who gets the ball.
Each roll can either go to the corresponding position (1-5) or to various other positions in different circumstances on a 6, 7 or 8.
1 = The player you put on the top of the 5 players in the game (the point guard) gets the ball.
2 = The player you put second from the top of the 5 players (the shooting guard) gets the ball.
3 = The player you put in the middle of the five players in game (swing or small forward) gets the ball.
4 = The player you put next to the bottom of five players in the game (power forward) gets the ball.
5 = The player you put on the bottom of the 5 players in the game (the center) gets the ball.
On a roll of 6, 7 or 8, the ball goes to a player who grabbed an offensive rebound as is trying to go straight up with the shot, or a player who steals the ball and is starting a fast break, or in all other cases goes to a player with a “6,” “7” or “8” on his card by his position number – or even two of those numbers.
Player steals ball and team calls “fast break”
After certain steals a team can all “fast break.” A fast break can be used if either of the two guards steals the ball on any roll, or if either of the two forwards steals the ball on an odd roll (11, 13, 15 or 31), but a center can never start a fast break on a steal. A team should almost always choose a fast break because doing so lowers the roll of the 20-sided die by 1 to give them a better chance of scoring a 3-pointer or other basket or be fouled.
A team might choose to call “normal offense” instead of using the fast break if the player stealing the ball has a very poor offensive card and he hopes to get the ball to another player, or in the last 9 possessions if the team is ahead and does not want to drag the game out by creating an extra possession.
If the team calls fast break then all rolls of 6, 7 or 8 go to the player who stole the ball, while 1-5 still go to the normal possession (as noted below, no matter which player gets the ball the 20-sided die is reduced by 1).
Likewise, if a player grabs the offensive rebound he can attempt to score immediately off the rebound on what is referred to as a “stick back” basket. Since unlike a fast break this does not add an extra possession, the only reasons not to attempt this is if the player with the rebound is a very poor offensive player (makes few shots or turns it over a lot), or if the team desperately needs a 3-pointers. In either of those cases the team can call “normal offense.”
Also like a fast break, the 20-sided dice roll is reduced by 20 (see below), with the one disadvantage being that if the player who grabbed the rebound gets the ball he cannot make or attempt a 3-pointer, so his result would be changed from 3 points to 2 points.
Some players on each team have a 6, 7 or 8 on their card in addition to their position number (1-5). In those cases, they may get the ball on a roll of 6, 7 or 8.
Option 1 – SIMPLE. If a 6, 7 or 8 is rolled, choose a player with that number gets ball.
You can go exactly with the 6, 7 and 8 numbers on the player cards, and if you have two players with the same number just choose between them. However, it is better to use option 2 since the numbers are transferrable.
Option 2 – BASIC. Write in small 6, 7 or 8 by which player gets each roll.
6 - Starting with the top player, the point guard, the first player with a 6, 7 and/or 8 in the lower left hand corner of old horizontal card sets or near the top of vertical card sets will get the ball on all 8-sided die rolls of “6” so write a small “6” by their number. If that player has two numbers such as 6&8 then give them the first two numbers, so 6 and 7.
7 - The second player with a 6, 7 and/or 8 gets the ball on a roll of 7. Keep in mind this might change any time the line-up changes. If this player started the game getting the ball on a “6” but then a point guard came in who had an extra number too, then the point guard would then get the ball on a “6” and this shooting guard would now get the ball on a “7” instead. If a point guard came in who received the ball on two extra numbers – then he would get the ball on a 6 or 7 and the shooting guard would now get the ball on an 8.
8 - The third player with a 6, 7 and/or 8 going from top to bottom gets the ball on a roll of "8."
“20” for more players with extra numbers – if a PF or C has a 6, 7 or 8 on his card but all three numbers are used up by other players above him, then he does not receive the ball on any number except his position number of 4 or 5. However, when this happens write down a “20” which means he now makes shots on a 20-sided die roll of 20 (see below for 20-sided die roll) because he is now shooting less but taking better shots and more likely to make them. If a great center will not get the ball because of players above him, you may also consider moving him up the stack of players so that he does get the ball on an 8 or other number – just keep in mind this will give him fewer chances for rebounds if playing as a forward instead of a center.
Situations in which a 6, 7 or 8 results in a turnover/shot clock violation
In certain cases no player gets the ball on an initial 8-sided die roll of 6, 7 or 8, and anytime that happens, roll all the dice again but on the second roll players can only get the ball on a 1-5 and any roll of 6, 7 or 8 on the second roll results in a shot clock violation turnover. The only exception to needing to roll again is that if the 11-66 roll is in the team’s dunk range (e.g. Dunk on 51-53, see explanation below in 11-66 roll descriptions) in which case the offense does get to dunk and simply chooses a player to score, or they instead have a Stop Range (e.g. Stop 51-52) then the defense still prevents the offense from scoring and chooses which player gets a rebound after the missed shot.
Roll of 6, 7 or 8 on second roll after first roll went to no player
If the team has a player with a 6 and 7, but no 8, and the first roll is an “8” and the second roll is a “6” it is a turnover. Even though a player had the “6” needed to get the ball on the first roll, once you are on the second roll of a possession it can only go to a player on a 1-5. With only 10 seconds left on the shot clock for a second roll, anytime it does not result in a 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 then the team turns the ball over on a shot clock violation.
No Point Guard in Game
As covered in the game set-up, if no player in the game has either a “PG” anywhere near the top of the card, or a “0” or “1” by their position mark on card sets that use this, then the game is being played with no point guard in the game. Ignore the result of a 6, 7 or 8 roll even on the first roll, and then if any of those three numbers come up again on the second roll it is a turnover.
Choosing to roll the 8-sided die only before the other dice last 4 possessions
If a team desperately needs to get the ball to one particular player, and the game is in the last four possessions, they can choose to roll only the 8-sided die first. In that case they roll that die first and then choose rather to have the player who gets the ball try to score or “keep passing” the ball. If they choose to keep passing and roll all the dice again, then a roll of 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 goes to the position player regardless of who they wanted to get the ball, and a 6-8 is a turnover. This might be used if a team must have a 3-pointer to have a chance to avoid giving the ball to someone with no 3-pointers made on their card.
Normally when an offensive player gets the ball, the player on defense is the player at the same position. In fact, you can keep to the SIMPLE game and make this always be the case. However, the game is more realistic and accurate if you use the two advanced rules on which defender is on defense.
If a good player commits a 3rd or 4th foul in a game (keep in mind all players start with one foul), the team can switch him to guard another position. For example, if a player draws a 4th foul guarding the 2020 national leading scorer in Markus Howard, he is likely to draw a 5th foul because Howard gets the ball on 37.5% of all Marquette possessions (on a 1, 6 and 7) AND he draws fouls 20 percent of the time he has the ball (a 8-11 foul drawn range on the 20-sided die).
The team could choose to have the defender with four fouls instead guard another Marquette player who perhaps only gets the ball one-third as often as Howard (a “2” or a “3” with no extra numbers) and when he does get the ball draws fewer fouls (perhaps just two numbers on the 20-sided die).
If this switch is made, when the player who switched is still guarded by the same player (Howard) that he is no longer guarding. Also, in addition to affecting when his defensive rolls of 11-36 are used, this also determines when his defensive rebounding range comes in to play. You would not want to move a point guard defender with an offensive rebound range of 1-1 and defensive range of 1-2 to guard the opposing center in most cases because he would likely have many more chances for rebounds which the opposing center would get as well.
Note that if a player has a steal range of 11-16 (31 all) or on older cards a 11-20 which means the same thing, then he is considered the defender and steal the ball on any opposing roll of 31 even if some player other than the one he is guarding has the ball. Likewise if a defensive player has a 21-26 (32 all) or on older cards a 21-30, then he is considered the defender on all rolls of 32 by the opponents and blocks the shot no matter who has the ball on the opposing team.
ADVANCED RULE. By the same token, if a player’s card has a steal range of 11-17, 11-18 or 11-19 he can steal the ball on a 16 on certain other opposing players, or a blocked shot range of 21-27, 21-28 or 21-29 he can blocked a shot of certain other players. The extra blocked shots start from the top of the opposing line-up and work down, so a range of 21-27 means he also blocks the opposing point guard on a 26, while a 21-28 means he can block both the point guard and shooting guard on a 26 etc. For steals it starts from the bottom and works up – so an 11-17 means he steals the ball from the opposing center on a 16, or 11-18 means he steals from the center or power forward.
If you want to keep to a SIMPLE GAME you can say the player who gets the ball on a 6, 7 or 8 is still guarded by the opponent at the same position. However, this will grossly distort results because a player with an 11-16 on steals will always be assigned to any player with three numbers (e.g. 1, 6 & 7) or at least a player with two and get way more steals than he should and shut down the opponent.
Fouls on 33-36 still on same position unless switched
On rolls of 33-36 (fouls) the defender is the player at the same position (unless he switched as above), however the BASIC GAME then rolls of 11-32 are considered “TEAM DEFENSE.”
Steal and Block Ranges Much Lower if 8-sided Die 6, 7 or 8
Note that it is much harder to steal the ball when the 8-sided die is 6, 7 or 8. In such cases the ball is never stolen on a 14, 15 or 16, and the Dice Chart indicates that a roll of 13 is only a steal in these cases if an 11-19 or 11-16 (31 all) defender is on the court. A 12 is only a steal if a 11-16 or better is on the court, and even an 11 is only a steal if an 11-13 or higher is on the court.
However, when the 8-sided die is a 1-5 then the defender on the play can steal any time the 11-16 is in his range, and a 31 is a steal no matter what the 8-sided die or who has the ball.
The same ratios exist for blocked shots in the 21-26 range, and likewise a 32 is always a blocked shot no matter who shoots the ball.
Once you determine which player has the ball based on the 8-sided die, look at the two 6-sided dice to get a reading of 11-66 and find it in a range below. The Dice Chart explains all result, but the following are narratives in case you find anything on the Dice Chart confusing.
41-46 Turnover. Look at the right column on the player’s card who received the ball on the roll of 1-8. If the roll is within the Turnover range on his card, then he turns the ball over, his team gets 0 points on the possession, and the other team has the ball. (Advanced Rule: If the player with the ball is out of stamina (playing his 9th possession with only “Stamina: 8” or “Can play 8 of 44 possessions” on card, then lower the roll by one so that a roll of 43 becomes a 42 etc. and he is more likely to turn the ball over. If he has more than doubled his stamina, such as this player playing his 17th possession, then lower it by 2.)
51-66 Dunk. Look at the dunk range of the player with the ball, and then subtract or add the opponent defenders "adj opp dunk/layup" number. As noted in the game setup, the whole team will have the same range. For example, if the offensive player/team has a 51-54 and the defender is a plus 2, then the new range is 51-56. If the roll is within the range plus or minus the defender, then the player gets by the defender to dunk the ball for 2 points.
Note that if the result is in the range, the offense an still choose the result of the 20-sided die roll, which would only result if it fell in the “made 3-pt shot” range or if he drew a foul on that card on a star opposing player already in foul trouble.
While the defender’s card is always used on rolls of 11-36, the rules are different depending on if the 8-sided die was a 1-5 or a 6-8.
11-16, 31 roll for steal if 8-sided die was 1-5
11-16 Steal - Basic: check the Steal Range of the defender across from the player with the ball, and if the roll is in his steal range of 11-16 then the defender steals the ball. (Advanced Rules: If out of Stamina then increase dice roll by 1 – e.g. 13 to 14 – or if doubled then by two – 13 to 15 – to make steal less likely, but player with a 31 still steals from any opposing player on that roll.)
Note that if any defender has an 11-20 or 11-16 (31 all) then he also steals the ball from any opposing player on a roll of 31.
Fast break after steal
Any time a guard steals the ball the team may opt for a “fast break,” or “normal offense.” If a forward steals the ball on a roll of 11, 13, 15 or 31 the team has the same option. If a center steals the ball the team cannot fast break, only play normal offense.
In most cases, a team that can fast break should do it. The number on the 20-sided die (see below) is lowered by 1 to give the team a better chance at scoring and hitting a 3-pointer. The only reason for choosing “normal offense” instead is if the player who stole the ball is a much weaker offensive player than his teammates (since he is the one who attempts the score on 50% of fast breaks as covered above in the second on the 8-sided die) or if the team is protecting a lead in the last 9 possessions and does not want to create an extra possession to give the opponent more chances to catch-up.
Steals (advanced rules)
If a player has a steal range of higher than 11-16 after any adjustments, then he can steal the ball on rolls of 16 or sometimes 31 when certain other players are on defense:
Steal 11-17 Also steals on 16 for bottom of 4 other players
Steal 11-18 Also steals on 16 for bottom TWO of other 4 players
Steal 11-19 Also steals on 16 for bottom THREE of other 4 players
Steal 11-20 Steals on a roll of 31 for any player
Steal 11-21 Steals on all rolls of 31 PLUS 16 for bottom of 4 players
Steal 11-22 Steals on all rolls of 31 PLUS 16 for bottom 2 of 4 players Blocks
21-26, 32 roll for block if 8-sided die was 1-5
Check the 21-26 Block Range of the defender across from the player with the ball to see if he blocks the shot - which is treated as a missed shot. Note that if a player has a 21-26 (32 all) or 21-30 or higher than he also blocks a shot on any roll of 32 no matter who on the opposing team has the ball. (Advanced Rules: If out of Stamina then increase dice roll by 1 – e.g. 23 to 24 – or if doubled then by two – 23 to 25 – to make blocks less likely, but player with a 32 still blocks shot by any opposing player on that roll.)
Blocks (advanced rules)
If a player has a block range of higher than 21-26, then he can steal the ball on rolls of 26 or sometimes 32 when certain other players are on defense:
Block 21-27 Also blocks on 26 for top of 4 other players
Block 21-28 Also blocks on 26 for top TWO of other 4 players
Block 21-29 Also blocks on 26 for top THREE of other 4 players
Block 21-30 Also blocks on roll of 32 for any player
Block 21-31 Blocks on all rolls of 32 PLUS 26 for top of 4 players
Block 31-32 Blocks on all rolls of 32 PLUS 26 for top TWO of 4
As noted above, “31” is a steal if an defender has it
31 - Steal. This is a steal if any defender on the court has a steal range of 11-20 or higher or on the 2020 cards include instead a range of "11-16 (31 all)."
As noted above, “32” is a block if an defender has it
32 - Block. This is a block if any defender on the court has a block range of 21-30 or higher or on the 2020 cards include instead a range of "21-26 (32 all)."
33 - 36 possible foul.
If the roll of 33-36 on the defender's card is a foul. Also look at the 20-sided die (Advanced Rules: If out of Stamina then increase dice roll by 1 – e.g. 33 to 34 – or if doubled then by two – 33 to 35 – to make fouls committed more likely.):
“Made 3-pt shot” – opposing player scores a 3-pointer and gets one free throw to try to make it four points for the possession.
“Made 2-pt shot” – opposing player scores 2-pointer and gets one free throw to try to make it three points for the possession.
“fouled, roll 20-sided…” – if this occurs in the first two columns on the score sheet then it is a 1-and-1 free throw, with the player getting another shot if me makes the first one.
“Missed 3-pointer” – gets three free throws, the shot is missed but it does not count as a missed shot
“Missed 2-pointer” – gets three free throws, the shot is missed but it does not count as a missed shot
Avoiding Fouls (advanced rules) – Option 1
As noted above, the easiest way to try to avoid fouling out of a game is to switch a defender with three or four fouls to guard another player who draws fewer fouls. If he does this, he is also defending that other position when a defensive rebound comes to that position.
Avoiding Fouls (advanced rules) – Option 2
The other option is to try to avoid fouling, which means he only commits a foul if the foul is in his 33-36 range AND the 20-sided die also refers to a foul drawn on the offensive player.
However, if the player is avoiding a foul then all rolls of 31 to 36 on his card become baskets for the player he is guarding even if a roll would have resulted in a blocked shot or steal AND on any roll on the 20-sided die that would have resulted in a foul instead becomes a 2-point basket. If a player with an 11-20 steal range is avoiding a foul then he can still steal on a roll of 31 on another player's card but if the player he is guarding has the ball then a 31 scores a basket. Likewise if a player with a 21-30 who would normally block all shots on a 32 does still block the shot unless the player he is guarding has the ball, in which case the opposing player scores at least 2 points (3 if his 20-sided die results in a 3-point shot made).
A player avoiding fouls must also reduce his rebounding, steal and blocked shot number by 1.
If the result of any roll of 11-66 does NOT result in a steal, block, foul, turnover or dunk, then proceed to read the 20-sided die and look at the right column or bottom area (depending on the card set edition) of the offensive player's card with the ball. Note that if the 20-sided die is referred to on a fast break or attempt to score immediately after an offensive rebound then the result of the 20-sided die is lowered by one before finding which of the five ranges for results are found. (Advanced Rules: If out of Stamina then increase dice roll by 1 – e.g. 7 to 8 – or if doubled then by two – 7 to 9 – to make tired player less likely to make shots.)
If the roll falls in the “made 3-pt shot” range (the first numbers, typically something like a 1-2 range) the player makes a 3-pt shot. See “33-36 resulted in a foul,” above, which leads to him getting one free throw for a chance at a 4-pt play.
Call “attempting 3-pointer” before roll to increase range
If a team chooses to look for a 3-point shot, which should only be done if behind by several points very late in the game, then each player’s 3-point range is increased based on two things; 1) a player’s range can no more than double, so a player with a 1-2 range can only increase it to a high of 1-4; 2) the player can only add a maximum of one number for every number they subtract from the top of their 2-point made range.
For example, Marquette’s Markus Howard’s 2020 card shows a made 3-point shot on a 1-4, however he cannot increase that range to 1-8 because his original 2-point made range is 5-7. To figure out how the card is adjusted if the team is trying for a 3-pointer increase, first increase Howard’s made 3-point range one to 1-5, then lower the top of the made 2-point range from 7 to 6 to leave him with only a 6 for a made 2-pointer. If his made 2-point range had been 5-8, then he could have subtracted two from the 8 to lower it to 6 to make his adjusted 3-point card 1-6 made 3-pointer with no made 2-pointers. However, if a player had a 1-2 made 3-pointer and made 2-pointer of 3-9, he could only double the 3-point range to add two numbers and make it a 1-4 range, and thus would only take the same number of rolls off the top of the 2-point range to go from 9 to 7, so that player would end up with 1-4 and 5-7. The numbers changed from made 2-pointer become missed 2-pointers. The ranges for fouls drawn and other missed shots are not affected.
Advanced rule for 3-point shots for players 1986 or earlier
Almost all player cards from the mid-1980s and earlier were for players who did not play in games with a 3-point line, and others played with 3-point lines at various distances. For those players the cards are all based on one-fifth of their made shots being from behind a 3-point line. An advanced rule adjustment is to make all shots by the team's center 2-pointers, but redistribute his 3-pointers by adding to the ranges of other players following the lines below:
If center’s 3-pt made was 1-1 change that to a 2-point shot, but add one Made 3-pointer number if 8-sided die roll was "2" roll (shooting guard)
If center’s 3-pt made was 1-2, change those to 2-point shot, and add one 3-pt made on "1" or "2" roll to PG or SG.
If center’s 3-pt made was 1-3 or higher change those all to a 2-point shot, and add two 3-pt made on "2" to SG and add one on "1" to PG.
If the center also gets the ball on an extra 8-sided roll (7 or 8) then add a 3ptM number to whoever gets the ball on an 8-sided die roll of "6."
2 pt. - The player makes a 2-pt shot. See above if the 33-36 resulted in a foul, he also gets one free throw for a chance at a 3-pt play.
Note if the team is trying for a 3-pointer to subtract the number of made 2-pointers for every 3-pointer added as explained above. This is not a good strategy unless you are desperate for 3-pointers with little time to catch up, because for every 2-pointer you are changing to a 3-pointer (+1) you are changing a 2-pointer to no points for a missed shot (-2) – however if the team is behind 7 points with 3 possessions left it is a chance worth taking.
The player gets two shots UNLESS the 33-36 free throw dice roll was also a foul and it occurred during the first two columns (44 to 22 possession). If that happens in the first two columns on the scoresheet then the player gets a 1-and-1 free throw. If he makes the first shot he takes a second shot as well.
The player misses a 3-point shot UNLESS the 33-36 roll resulted in a foul on the defenders card – in which case he shoots three free throws.
The player misses a 2-point shot UNLESS the 33-36 roll resulted in a foul on the defenders card – in which case he shoots three free throws.
Missed 2-point or 3-point shot in Non-Shaded Possession goes to defender indicated
If he misses one of these shots on a non-shaded possession (43, 41, 39 to 11 or on the final 8 even numbers 8, 6, 4 and 2) then the ball is rebounded by the defender indicated on the score sheet by that possession.
Missed Final Free Throw in Shaded Possession
If he misses one of these shots on a shaded possession (44, 42, 40 to 10 on even numbers and the final odd numbers 9 7, 5, 3 and 1) then refer to the Rebound Chart in the bottom right of the scoresheet with the explanation below (note it is much harder for the offense to get a rebound on a missed foul shot then a regular missed shot).
When a roll of 20 appears on a 20-sided die it is almost always a missed field goal or free throw. However, there are a couple of exceptions. Sometimes a player (likely a center) has extra numbers – a 6, 7 and/or 8 – on his card but he only gets the ball on his position roll of 1-5 because the 6, 7 and 8 are already taken by other players. For any position that he is in the game and not able to use his 6, 7 or 8, he instead gets the advantage of scoring a 2-point basket if he shoots and his 20-sided die roll is a 20.
The only other case in which a 20 is changed to a 2-point basket is a couple of very rare cards (e.g. Ja Morant at Murray State) in which the assist rate was incredibly high. In that case, while Morant or anyone else with an “Assist 20” on his card is in the game, the other four players all score on a roll of 20 on their cards.
Most possessions end after the four dice are rolled. If the team turns the ball over, has it stolen, makes a shot, or misses a shot on a non-shaded possession (44, 42, 40 to 10 on even numbers then 9, 7, 5, 3 and 1 on odd numbered possessions). Whenever this happens, simply update the score in their column by leaving it the same or adding 1, 2, 3 or more points and roll the four dice for the opposing team’s next possession.
Roll 20-sided die only for each free throw
Any time a player is fouled he will get either one, two or three free throws, or a one-and-one in which he must make the first free throw to get a second shot.
When this happens, roll the 20-sided die once for each free throw, and if it falls with his “free throw good” range near the bottom of his card add a point. If he misses the first of two free throws or the first or second of three free throws, then the 20-sided die again for his next free throw.
If he misses his last shot of 1, 2 or 3 free throws, or if he misses the first shot of a 1-and-1 then the ball must be rebounded in one of two ways.
Missed Final Free Throw in Non-Shaded Possession goes to defender indicated
Like in a missed shot (see above) if he misses one of these shots on a non-shaded possession (43, 41, 39 to 11 or on the final 8 even numbers 8, 6, 4 and 2) then the ball is rebounded by the defender indicated on the score sheet by that possession.
Missed Final Free Throw in Shaded Possession
Like in a missed shot (see above) if he misses one of these shots on a shaded possession (44, 42, 40 to 10 on even numbers and the final odd numbers 9 7, 5, 3 and 1) then refer to the Rebound Chart in the bottom right of the scoresheet with the explanation below (note it is much harder for the offense to get a rebound on a missed foul shot then a regular missed shot).
However, there are a few exceptions in which you roll fewer than four dice at a time:
1) Only the 20-sided die is rolled for any free throw attempt (as noted above),
2) Only the 20-sided die and one of the 6-sided die is rolled when referring to the rebound chart (see below).
3) ADVANCED GAME. If the defense chooses to go for a steal or foul, then the offense rolls three of the dice but not the 20-sided die (next example)
4) ADVANCED GAME. And if a team wants to try to get the ball to a particular player, then they roll the 8-sided die first and then determine whether or not to roll the other three dice to see what they player does or roll all four dice to take a chance on a new player getting the ball (next example)
If a team wants to try to create extra possessions to catch up in the last nine possessions of the game, they set aside the 20-sided die and roll the other three. The result of this roll is almost always a foul with the player who gets the ball on the 8-sided die shooting two free throws. However, if the results of the roll of the 11-66 dice is either a turnover in the 41-46 range or a steal in the 11-16 or 31 range (see explanations below) then the team forces a turnover AND creates the extra possession just as would happen on any other steal or foul (the turnover creates the extra possession only when this strategy is being used and not in normal play – because this aggressive strategy “speeds up” the offense to force a quicker turnover.
Instead of rolling all four dice at once, a team that needs to try to get the ball to one particular player or needs to get the ball to a 3-point shooter in the closing four possessions can choose to roll the 8-sided dice first at any point in the last four possessions of the game. If the team wants that player to try to score they then roll the other three dice to determine the result just as they would have under the scenarios above. If they do not want that player to attempt to score, then roll all four dice again but a 6-8 becomes a turnover and only a 1,2,3,4 or 5 goes to a player to shoot.
If a team misses a 2-pointer or 3-pointer without being fouled, or misses his final free throw, then someone must grab the rebound. If the miss occurs on a non-shaded possession (43, 41, 39 to 11 or on the final 8 even numbers 8, 6, 4 and 2) then the ball is rebounded by the player indicated on the scoresheet whether the miss occurred on a free throw, 2-pointer or 3-pointer.
The 20-sided die in are rebound chart roll is used on the Rebound Chart down the lower right side of the score sheet. The 1-3 roll means the offensive center gets the first chance, the 4-5 means the offensive power forward gets the first shot at the rebound etc. through a 19 means the defensive point guard gets the first shot.
A roll of 10 or 20 is unique because it means the high player on the court, regardless of whether on offense or defense, gets the rebound. In this case, the offense wins a tie, and if more than one teammates are tied then the team can choose who gets it (on offense choosing the better offensive player).
Once you determine who gets a chance at the rebound based on the 20-sided die then look at the 6-sided die to see if it falls within that player’s “Offensive Reb” range if it is an offensive player with the first chance (1-9 on the 20-sided die) or in the “Defensive Reb” range if it is a defensive player with the first chance (11-19).
If the 6-sided die is outside the player’s range then the opposing player guarding him gets the rebound.
Advanced Rule 1. A player with no Stamina remaining (e.g. playing 9th possession with “Stamina 9” or “Can play 8 of 44 possessions” on his card then his offensive and defensive rebound range by 1 (e.g. a 1-4 range becomes 1-3). If he more than doubled his Stamina (e.g. playing his 17th possession) then it is reduced by 2 (e.g. 1-4 to 1-2).
Advanced Rule. If the opposition has switched who a player is guarding and he fails to get a defensive rebound, then the player he is guarding gets the offensive rebound. If the offensive player fails to get the rebound then the player guarding him gets it, even if the defense changed who was guarding him.
Note that if the 20-sided die was a 10 or 20, then the 6-sided die is irrelevant as the highest player on the court gets it as noted above.
Offensive Players who cannot get free throw rebound
It is very difficult for the offensive team to get a rebound after a free throw. While they get roughly one in three offensive rebounds overall they get only about one in seven rebounds after a missed free throw.
If a rebound roll of the 20-sided die results in a roll of 10 or 20, then the high player rebounder on the court gets the ball regardless – even if it is the player shooting the free throw or one of the guards who cannot normally get a rebound.
However, if the 20-sided die is 1-9 or 11-19 on the rebound chart after the missed free throw use the following additional chart:
On a roll or 8-9 or 18-19 if the result of the 6-sided die determines the offensive shooting guard or point guard would get the ball after a missed shot on a missed free throw change that result to give the rebound to the defensive center.
On a roll of 6-7 or 16-17 if the result indicates the offensive small forward would get the ball, then change the result to give the ball to the defensive power forward, with one exception. If the Center or Power Forward missed the free throw then the offensive small forward can get the rebound because he took their spot as one of the two offensive rebounders in the lane.
On a roll of 1-5 or 11-15 indicates the offensive power forward or center would get the rebound on a missed shot, he can also get the offensive rebound on a missed free throw with one exception. If the power forward or center who would have grabbed the offensive rebound on a missed free throw is the player who shot the free throw then the rebound goes to his defender (center or power forward). Note whoever shoots the free throw can get it, but only on a 10 or 20 roll on which his offensive rebound range is higher or equal to all five defenders and all four offensive teammates.
In any scenario above in which an offensive player grabs a rebound, whether off a missed free throw or missed shot, note that the team is still in the same possession box (even if they have already scored 1 or more points before the offensive rebound).
Option 1 – Roll all 4 dice again as though a new possession was starting
The offense can simply call “normal offense” and roll all four dice and use the normal procedure just like the start of a possession. In this case the team is bringing the ball back out to run their normal offense.
Option 2 – Attempt for “Stick Back” to score right away
In most cases, when a team grabs an offensive rebound, they want to try to score right away. Unless “normal offense” is called roll all four dice again. As noted above, if the 8-sided die is a 1-5 that position gets the ball. If the roll is 6-8, the player who grabbed the offensive rebound gets the ball.
The roll on the 20-sided die is lowered by one to give the team a better chance to score and score a 3-pointer.
The only disadvantage to trying to score immediately is that the player who gets the rebound (either by his position coming up on the 1-5 die or through a 6-8) cannot score or shoot a 3-pointer, so if the 20-sided roll reduced by one falls in the 3-point made range change it to a 2-point made, and if it falls in the missed 3-pointer range and he is fouled it only gets two free throws for being fouled on a 2-point shot.
Therefore if a team desperately needs a 3-pointer at the end of a game, or if the player grabbing the rebounder is a weaker offensive player than his teammates, then the team might want to call normal offense instead. But in almost all cases they should try to score immediately.
While the left side of the sheet is the road team and the right side is the home team for scoring purposes, in most cases – particularly if you are playing simulated NCAA March Madness games – you want to treat the game as a neutral court game.
However, to play a season or NIT tournament games with one team at home, the following adjustment is made to calibrate the average advantage the home team enjoys in the match-up.
If using the home court advantage and the 11-66 dice come up as a 36 when the visitor has the ball, they lose the ball out of bounds after being bumped by the home team defender but getting no call from the referee. Record 0 points for that away team possession, and home team gets the ball.
If using the home court advantage and the 11-66 roll comes up as a 66 when home has the ball, the referee calls a foul. If the home player makes a basket on the 1-20 die, then the basket is still good but the referee calls a mistaken foul on the defender to also give him a foul shot. If the home player with the ball misses a shot then the referee incorrectly calls a foul on the defender, and the home player gets either 2 or 3 shots depending on if he missed a 2-point shot or 3-point shot. If the 20-sided die results in the home player getting foul shots, then there is no change from the roll due to the roll of 66.
Background: College referees get calls correct an incredibly high percentage of time, but the indication is that the difference in home advantage is that the home team gets 1 or 2 "home" foul calls than they would on a neutral court, while the road team gets 1 to 2 "missed" calls which they should have received a foul call on the home team but did not. Add it together the home team will average taking three more free throws that they would have gotten on a neutral court, and since players average making around 67 percent of free throws they score 2 more points than they would on the neutral court. On the flip side, the visiting team averages getting 3 free throws fewer than they would have been able to take on a neutral court so they score 2 points fewer than they would on a neutral court, so a 4-point average advantage for the home team.