The Value Add Basketball Game (VABG) utilizes the four dice above (8-sided, two 6-sided, 20-sided) to simulate games between great college teams using player cards like the Kentucky 2012 vs. Kansas 2008 cards below. The following are the 5 steps to play the game, but we start with Step 5 - Rebounds, because while you just need to review Steps 1 to 4 once, you need to keep Step 5 visible during the game. (Update, 20th Century's 48 great teams will be added soon to the 21st Century's 48 great teams.)

## Step 5 - Rebounding Chart

Rebound Chart | |
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The rebound chart is chronologically the LAST item on the instructions below, but it is the one item you will need to view even after you learn the steps below to play the game. | |

If a shot or final free throw is missed on an odd possession (43, 41, 39 ... 3) except for the final possession, then record a team rebound for the defense. | |

If a shot or final free throw is missed on an EVEN possession (44,42,40 ... 2) or the final possession, then roll the 20-sided die and one 6-sided die are rolled to determine who gets the rebound. | |

1 = Check Off Center (in 5 slot) Off Reb Range / ... if 11 check Def Center /Def Reb Range | |

2 = Check Off Center (in 5 slot) Off Reb Range / ... if 12 check Def Center /Def Reb Range | |

3 = Check Off Center (in 5 slot) Off Reb Range / ... if 13 check Def Center /Def Reb Range | |

4 = Check Off PF (in 4 slot) Off Reb Range / ... if 14 check Def PF /Def Reb Range | |

5 = Check Off PF (in 4 slot) Off Reb Range / ... if 15 check Def PF /Def Reb Range | |

6 = Check Off SF (in 4 slot) Off Reb Range / ... if 16 check Def SF /Def Reb Range | |

7 = Check Off SF (in 4 slot) Off Reb Range / ... if 17 check Def SF /Def Reb Range | |

8 = Check Off SG (in 2 slot) Off Reb Range / ... if 18 check Def SG /Def Reb Range | |

9 = Check Off PG (in 1 slot) Off Reb Range / ... if 19 check Def PG /Def Reb Range | |

10 or 20 = Check Off Reb Range / of all offensive players and /Def Reb Range of all defenders, highest on court gets rebound with tie going to offensive player. | |

Once determining the player from the 20-sided die, if the 1-6 roll is in his range then he gets the rebound. If not, the opposing player at the same position gets the rebound. | |

If an offensive player gets the rebound, then roll the 20-sided die only and read that players result in the right column to see if he scores, is fouled or misses. If he misses the shot, repeat the rebounding chart roll of the 20-sided and 6-sided dice until the offense scores or the defense grabs a rebound. | |

Example: Using the cards below, if Kansas missed a shot on an even numbered possession, and a roll of 12 occured on the 20-sided die it would say to check the Def Center, who is the 5th player below under Kentucky, Anthony Davis. If the 6-sided die resulted in a "5" then Davis would get the rebound because his Def Reb 1-6 indicates he gets the rebound anytime he has the chance. However, if the same roll resulted after Kentucky missed a shot, then the rebound would go to Kansas' defensive center, Darnell Arthur, but since his Def Reb range is 1-4 the "5" would mean he did NOT get the rebound and instead Anthony Davis would get an offensive rebound.Rolls of 10 or 20 are the only times you ignore the 6-sided die and look for the best rebounder on the court. If Kentucky missed a shot a 10 or 20 would give an offensvie rebound to Davis because his Off Reb 1-6 is better than any other Kentucky player's Off Reb range and better than any Kansas player's defensive rebound range. However, a 10 or 20 after a Kansas miss would go to Darnell Arther because his Offensive Rebound range is higher at 1-6, and just as high as Anthony Davis' defensive range of 1-6 and higher than anyone else on the court - and ties go to the offensvie team on rolls of 10 or 20. | |

Advanced Rule: on a missed Free Throw, the rebound goes to the defense unless the result from above calls for the Offensive Center or PF to get the rebound, or if one of those two is shooting the FT then the Offensive SF can also get the rebound. | |

Explanation: Defenses rebound roughly two-thirds of all missed shots. In VABG the defense gets the rebound on almost half - 21 of 44 possessions - automatically. However, on the other possessions the VAGB cards are calibrated to give the offense almost 60% of all rebounds and they can get more than one rebound on each possession, the offense will average about one-third of all rebounds over the course of a Value Add Basketball Game if both teams are equal in rebounds.Click on the top and bottom image below to get full sized cards of all five players for each team - or click on this google doc to print out all 48 great teams. |

## Step 1 - What You Need

Step 1 | What you need |
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One 20-sided die, one 8-sided die, two 6-sided die of different colors to get rolls of 11-66 | |

Pick the teams you want to play from these 48 Great teams then write the name of the visiting team on the left, and the home team on the right. You can play a practice game by printing the 5 starters for the 2008 Kansas National Champions and 2012 Kentucky National Champions to play a practice game. |

## Step 2 - Scoresheet Set-up and Starting the Game

Click on each part of the scoresheet below to keep track of your game. Instructions for listing your line-ups and setting up to start the game are listed after the scoreboard. Click on the top and bottom image below and print in order to get a full sized score sheet for your game.

Step 2 | Board set up and Starting the Game |
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Video of setup: https://tinyurl.com/y6t4vdtp | |

Dunk/layup range: Take the dunk/layup range from the bottom middle of each player card (e.g. 51-55) and adjust by the plus or minus on the opponents card (e.g. if the opponent was -2, then adjust the teams range to 51-53.) | |

Compare the two team ranges and subtract the range of the lower team from both cards so only one team has a range (e.g. if Team A had the lower range of 51-53 then take away their three numbers, and if the other team had a 51-55 then subtract three numbers from them as well to give them a 51-52. Write the final ranges for each team (or just for the higher team) on the top of the scoresheet). | |

If the higher team has at least a 51-58, then subtract 1 from all of the opposing players steal range (but do not drop below 11-12), block range (but do not drop below 21-22) and defensive rebound (but do not drop below 1-1). | |

If the higher team has at least a 51-60 then subtract 2 from each of those numbers, but do not drop below 11 or 21, but you can eliminate all defensive rebounds. | |

(note there are not rolls of 57, 58, 59 or 60, but if the range goes to 51-61 or higher then the team gets the higher range but also the benefit of subtracting 2 from the opponents' numbers from the line above. | |

Layout starters: Pick your 5 starters and put them in order from point guard through center and write them in the top 5 spots. Note how many possessions they can play, and do not bring them into the game until that possession so they can play all the way to the end of the game once in. Write the names of the starters from 1 to 5 on the scoresheet. | |

The number(s) in the lower corner left corner gives the suggested position (1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 for every player) but you can play any player at any position. | |

Basic Rules: To keep things simple, you can simply play the five starters in for the whole game such as a game between Kentucky and Kansas using only the cards pictured above, or use extra cards whenever you want. | |

Start of Game: Every player - starter or reserve, starts the game with 2 points. If a team has less than 10 players, then the players with the highest PPG average start with 4 points so that every team - regardless of the number of players - starts with 20 points. Actual games take close to 70 possessions, so for purposes of the game it is assumed all players split the early possessions evenly to result in a 20-20 tie with 44 possessions remaining to be played in the game. The cards are calibrated based on the results each player should get in 44 possessions assuming everyone was average on the other possessions of the game. Playing 44 possessions keeps the game to slightly more than half an hour vs. an entire hour. | |

Player stats:At the beginning of the game, every player - starter and reserve - starts wtih 2 points, 1 rebound and 1 foul. | |

If a team has only 9 players then the player with the highest PPG starts with 4 points instead of 2. If a team has only 8 players, then the player with the 2nd highest PPG also starts with 4 points. If a team has only 7 players, then the player with the 3rd highest PPG starts with 4 points instead of 2. IF YOU DECIDE TO ONLY PLAY 5 STARTERS FOR EACH TEAM FOR THE WHOLE GAME, THEN EACH PLAYER STARTS WITH 4 POINTS. In every case, a team starts the game with 20 total points. | |

PG & SG 1 Steal: The top 2 starters on the scoresheet (point guard and shooting guard at the "1" and "2" position) both start with 1 steal. No other player starts with a steal. | |

Front line 2 Rebounds: The 3 starters listed in the 3rd through 5th spot on the scoresheet (the "3" through the "5") start with 2 rebounds instead of 1. | |

Center 1 Block: The 5th starter - the center or "5" also starts with one blocked shot. | |

Allocating team rebounds: At the end of the game, you can distribute the team rebounds for each team among the players starting with the starting center and working up to the starting point guard. For example, if there was only 1 team rebound give it to the start center (or 5). If two rebounds give one to the Center and one to the PF (4), up to 5 total team rebounds resulting in 1 rebound for every starter. Six (6) team rebounds would result in the center getting two extra rebounds and the rest of the starters one rebound, 7 team rebounds would result in the C and PF getting 2 each and the other starters 1 etc., with 11 team rebounds giving the center 3 etc. | |

Step 2 - Advanced. Rotating Reserves into Game for normal number of possessions. | |

Simple Rotation. To keep the player rotation simple, put reserves on the top of starters and used them for possessions 44-34 - the final 6:41 of the first half - then discard them and play the starters for the entire second half. Write the names of the remaining players on the additional lines below the starting 5. | |

More Accurate Rotation: Put reserve players on top of the starters, but by each starter on the scoresheet the possessions he cold play based on the "can play ___ possessions" - so if that number is "42" then write 42-1 by him to show he can play from the 42nd possession through the end of the game without getting tired. Write the possessions you plan to use each player to the side of the player (e.g. 44-39 might be a reserve and then 38-31 for the starter who will come in for him). On some versions of the cards we type out all of the suggested ranges, but others just show the number of possessions. | |

Point Guard 0 or 1. Be sure to keep at least one player with a "0" or "1" in the lower left corner (suggested position) on the court in the point guard position, if you do not have anyone with a "0" or "1" on the court then noone can get a shot off with a 6, 7 or 8 roll. If this does happen roll again, and if a 6,7 or 8 comes up against then the team turns the ball over on a shot clock violation. | |

Reserves. Using the number on reserves cards for how many possessions they can play, write by them what possessions you would like them in the game. For example, if a starter was a 39-1 for his 39 possessions, and another player could play 5 or more possessions, you could write 44-40 next to him to show that he would play the first 5 possessions and then on the 39th possession to go he will be discarded and the starter will play the rest of the game. In some cases you may play two reserves before you get to the starter. | |

Tired Player. If a player is in the game for as many possessions as he can play based on the left side of the card, he can stay in the game but all rolls on the 20-sided die of either a 1 or a 2 change from a made basket to a missed basket. |

**Explanation.**A game typically lasts about 70 possessions, but even in the most lopsided match-up the two teams will play even on about one-third of all possessions. For speed of play, those possessions are accounted for at the beginning of the game, balancing out to a 20-20 tie during about 25 possessions. While that is slightly below the average one point per possession, the rest of the game is calibrated so that in an even match-up each team will score slightly more than a point per possession to determine the outcome. Playing out the final 44 possessions only allows games to be played in 30 to 40 minutes, with accurate overall results and chances of upsets.

## Step 3 - Reading the Dice Rolls

All four dice are rolled at the same time for each team possession, however they are read in this order.

### 1st - read the 8-sided die to see which player gets ball

8-sided die determines who gets the ball (basic) | |
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1 | The player you put on the top of the 5 players in the game (the point guard) gets the ball. (e.g. Kentucky above, Marquis Teague, defended by Kansas' Russell Robinson) |

2 | The player you put second from the top of the 5 players gets (the sooting guard) gets the ball. (e.g. Kentucky above Doron Lamb, guarded by Russell Robinson) |

3 | The player you put in the middle of the five players in game (swing or small forward) gets the ball. (Kentucky above Michael Kidd-Gilchrist, guarded by Kansas' Brandon Rush) |

4 | The player you put next to the bottom of five players in the game (forward or powerforward) gets the ball. (Kentucky above Terrance Jones, defended by Kansas' Darnell Jackson) |

5 | The player you put on the bottom of the 5 players in the game (the center or biggest forward) gets the ball. (e.g. Kentucky above Anthony Davis, guarded by Kansas' Darnell Arthur) |

While every player has a 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5, only players who have an extra number - usually a 7 but sometimes a 6&8 - can get the ball on a roll of 6, 7 or 8. | |

6 | Starting with the top player, point guard, the first player with a 6, 7 and/or 8 in the lower left hand corner of the card gets the ball if the 8-sided die roll is an 8. |

Example: For Kentucky above, the 1st player Marquis Teague does have a 7 (1&7) and so he gets the ball on a roll of 6. For Kansas above, the first player Russell Robinson does ONLY has a "1" and therefore cannot get the ball on a 6, 7 or 8, but the next player Mario Chalmers does (1&7) so he gets the ball when Kansas rolls a 6 on the 8-sided dies. | |

7 | The second player with a 6, 7 and/or 8 gets the ball on a roll of 7. |

Example: For Kentucky, Teague would have the ball on a roll of "6" (see above) and the next player Lamb does not have a 6, 7 and/or 8, so a roll of "7" goes to the next player with an extra number, Michael Kidd-Gilchrist (4&7). For Kansas, Chalmers gets the ball on a "6" (see above), and the next player below him Brandon Rush also has an extra number (1&7), therefore he gets the ball when Kansas rolls a "7". | |

8 | The third player with a 6, 7 and/or 8 going from top to bottom gets the ball on a roll of "8." |

Example: In the case of Kentucky the next player after Teague and Kidd-Gilchrist with an extra number is the 4th player, Terrance Jones (5&7) so he gets the ball on a roll of 8. For Kansas, with Chalmers and Rush getting the ball on a 6 and 7, the 4th player Darnell Johnson also has an extra number (5&7) so he gets the ball on a roll of "8". | |

In the basic rules, whoever gets the ball on a roll of 6, 7 or 8 is guarded by the same player who would guard him on a roll of 1-5. | |

Advanced: If the 8-sided die results in a roll of 6, 7 or 8 these rules make for a more accurate game. | |

6&8 on Card. If any player on the team has both a 6 & 8 on his card instead of just a 7, then he gets not only the first number that comes to him but the second if available. A player could get both the 6 and the 7 roll, or the 7 and the 8 roll, but if the 6 & 7 number are already taken by players above him, then he would get only the 8. | |

Roll of "20" Shot. If a player who does have a 6, 7 and/or 8 in the lower left hand corner of the card but does NOT get to use his number or both his numbers because players above him claim the ball on those rolls, then when he does get the ball a roll of "20" on | |

Example: Both Anthony Davis and Darnell Arthur in the Kentucky vs. Kansas game above have a "5&7" in the lower left hand corner but because players above them use the 6, 7 and 8 they both only get the ball if the 8-sided die is a "5." However, a roll of 5 on the 8-sided die and roll of 20 on the 20-sided die results in a 2-point shot made instead of missed unless something stopped the ball on the 11=66 roll (see below). | |

If no player has 6, 7 and/or 8. If for any reason the result of a roll of 6, 7 or 8 results in noone getting the ball, then all dice are rolled again with only 10 seconds left on the shot clock and if a second roll does not result in anyone getting the ball then the team turns the ball over on a shot clock violation. | |

No Point Guard in Game. If the top player of the 5 does not have "0" or "1" as one of his possible positions in the bottom left of his card, then you are playing without a true point guard, and ignore the result of a 6,7 or 8 roll above and instead roll all three dice again and there are only 10 seconds left on the shot clock. | |

Advanced Game for 6, 7 or 8. Unlike the scenario above in the basic rules where the corresponding player is always on defense, in advanced rules the defender might be another player (see below). |

### 2nd - Read the two 6-sided die for 11-66 result

Once you determine which player has the ball based on the 8-sided die, look at the two 6-sided dice to get a reading of 11-66 and find it in a range below (we list higher numbers first, then go back to 11-36.
41-46 Turnover. Look at the middle column on the players card who received the ball on the roll of 1-8. If the roll is within the Turnover range on his card, then he turns the ball over, his team gets 0 points on the possession, and the other team has the ball.
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Example: A "41" is a turnover for almost every player, however Anthony Davis turned the ball over so rarely that his range is 41-40, meaning he will not turn over the ball on any roll of 41-46. It is possible for him to have a turnover if his defender has a steal (below). | |

51-66 Dunk. Look at the dunk range of the player with the ball, and then subtract or add the opponent defenders "adj opp dunk/layup" number. As noted in the game setup, the whole team will have the same range. For example, if the offensive player/team has a 51-54 and the defender is a plus 2, then the new range is 51-56. If the roll is within the range plus or minus the defender, then the player gets by the defender to dunk the ball for 2 points UNLESS the 20-sided die results in a 3-pt made. | |

11-16 Steal - Basic: check the Steal Range of the defender across from the player with the ball, and if the roll is in his steal range then he steals the ball. | |

Advanced Steal. If the 8-sided die was a 6, 7 or 8 then cut all defenders' steal range in half (round up so 11-11 or 11-12 becomes 11-12, 11-13 or 11-14 becomes 11-12, etc). However, if the defender guarding the player does not get a steal but one of the other 4 defenders can steal the ball if his range - also cut in half - would be a steal. If it is not within any defenders range cut in half then there is no steal. | |

Example. If Michael Kidd-Gilchrist gets the ball on an 8-sided die roll of "7" and the steal roll is 15, then first check Brandon Rush's steal range and beause the roll was after an 8-sided roll of 6, 7 or 8, that range is cut in half to 11-13 and Rush does not steal the ball. However, in checking the other 4 players Mario Chalmers' 11-20 range is cut in half to 11-15 and he steals the ball instead. Note that if Kidd-Gilchrist instead received the ball on a roll of "3" the Rush's steal range would have still been the normal 11-15 so he would have the steal. | |

21-26 Block - Basic: check the Block Range of the defender across from the player with the ball to see if he blocks the shot - which is treated as a missed shot. | |

Advanced: As with the steal, if the roll of 21-26 occurs after a roll of 6, 7 or 8 then cut the block range in half but round up (21-22 becomes 21-21, 23-24 becomes 21-22 etc.). However, if the defender cannot block the shot but some other player on the court can block the shot using half his block range, then he blocks the shot. | |

Example: If Mario Chalmers gets the ball on a "7" roll on the 8-sided die and the two 6-sided dice total is 26, then you first look at the defender Doron Lamb's block range of 21-21 which cut in half is still 21-21 and not nearly enough to block the shot. However, because the 6-sided die was in the 6-8 range, you check other players and see that Anthony Davis block range is normally 21-31 - meaning even cut in half it becomes a 21-26 and he blocks Chalmer's shot. | |

31 - Steal. This is a steal if any defender on the court has a steal range of 11-20 or higher (e.g. Mario Chalmers). | |

32 - Block. This is a block if any defender on the court has a block range of 21-30 or higher (E.g. Anthony Davis). | |

33 - 36 possible Foul. | |

If the roll of 33-36 on the defender's card is a foul, then he commits a foul and check the 20-sided die to see if it is a 3-point shot made or misses, a 2-point shot made or missed, or simply a foul on that roll as well which is a one-and-one free throw on possessions 33 to 11 or two shots on any other possession. | |

Advanced: If the 8-sided die roll was 6, 7 or 8, and it is not in the defender's range, but the roll would result in another defender's range, then the offense can pick any such player to commit a foul. | |

Example: If Chalmers gets the ball on a roll of "6" on the 8-sided die and the two 6-sided die result in a roll of 35, then that is not a foul for the player guarding him - Doron Lamb - whose foul range is only 36-36. However, because the play cam off an 8-sided die of 6-8, Chalmers can draw a foul on either Kidd-Gilchrist or Jones - who both have foul ranges of 35-36. |

### 3rd - Read the 20-sided die

If nothing happens on the roll of 11-66, or if it results in a foul, then read the 20-sided die for one of the results below.If the result of any roll of 11-66 does NOT result in a steal, block, foul, turnover or dunk, then proceed to read the 20-sided die and look at the right column of hte offensive player's card with the ball. | |
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3 pt - The player makes a 3-pt shot (if the 33-36 resulted in a foul, he also gets one free throw for a chance at a 4-pt play). | |

2 pt - The player makes a 2-pt shot (if the 33-36 resulted in a foul, he also gets one free throw for a chance at a 3-pt play). | |

Foul - The player gets two free throws UNLESS the result of a 33-36 was also a foul AND it is the 33rd through 10th possession remaining in the game. | |

3 pt missed - The player misses a 3-pt shot, BUT if a 33-36 roll resulted in a foul then he gets 3 shots. | |

2 pt missed - The player misses a 2-pt shot, BUT if a 33-36 roll resulted in a foul then he gets 2 shots. | |

Foul Shots - Roll the 20-sided die only for foul shots and refer to the range in the "free throw" range in the bottom right of the players cards to see if the free throw is made or missed. |

## Step 4 - Optional Use of Advanced Strategies

Go for Steal/Intentional Foul on extra possessions before possession 2 and 1. The possessions above Possessions 2 and 1 are skipped UNLESS one of the two teams decides to foul. If EITHER team decides to foul, then when the other team has the ball on 2a or 1a (or either or both) do not used the 20-sided die.
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If the 8-sided die is a 1-5 then only that player can attempt to steal the ball - and if his 11-16 range (or on a 31 if any player has an 11-20 steal range or higher) then the ball is stolen. On 2a or 1a the defense gets the rebound. Play possessions 2 and 1 normally whether or not the team behind calls for the foul to cause 2a and 1a to be played. | |

If the 8-sided die roll is a 6, 7 or 8, then the defender with the highest steal range attempts to make the steal. If the defender is higher than 11-16 then increase his range by 4, so an 11-17 becomes 11-21, 11-18 becomes 11-22 etc. If the 11-66 range is anything besides a steal under the scenarios above, then the play is a 20shot foul. | |

Try for 3-pointer. By calling "try for 3-pointer" before a roll, each players 3 point made range can be increased by 1 for every 2 pointer that is taken away within certain paramaters. For example, a 3 point range was 1-5 and 2 point range was 6-10, the three point range could be increased to 1-7 by changing a roll of 9 or 10 into a miss with the defense getting the rebound. | |

The three point range can never be more than doubled, so a three point range of 1-1 and 2 point made of 2-10 can only be changed to a 1-2 three pointer made and a 3-9 two pointer still made while a 10 is a miss and defense gets the rebound. | |

A 1-0 three point range can still not make any 3 pointers. | |

Not fouling. If a team declares that one or more player is "avoiding a foul" then any rolls of 31-36 when the player is guarding has the ball is scored as a 2-point layup, but none are a foul. | |

New substitutions can be made late in the game to add players with a higher steal range, or with a higher 3-point range. | |

Advice: The intentional foul on 1a and 2a or the attempt 3-pointers should not be used unless a team is trailing and needs it to have a chance. By doing this you are giving away twice as many points as you are adding on average (e.g. changed two 2 pointers from 2 to 3 points adds only 2 points for every 20 rolls while tuning the two 2 pointers to 0 costs 4 points for every 20 rolls. |

## Step 5 - Return to Top for Rebound Chart

Here is a photo of the entire game set up at the end of Syracuse 2003 vs UNC 2005.

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