Sunday, February 24, 2019

Value Add Basketball Game (VABG) Instructions

You can choose from our all-time great college basketball teams from 1943 to present to play this free Value Add Basketball Game. We feature 234 great men's teams and 64 great women's teams. This post and links includes everything you need to play the game, though the game is easier to play if you use 6 dimes and 10 pennies to keep track of which players are in the game and it plays faster if you buy four dice (one 8-sided, one 20-sided and two 6-sided dice of different colors). If you don't get dice, you can use the fast action cards in these instructions.

You can print out the scoresheet below in 2 pages, or open this google sheet to score a game. You do need this scoresheet to determine who gets rebounds and for the starting stats for a Value Add Basketball Games since we start players with two points and some other stats and a 20-20 score to keep the play time for the game to 30 to 45 minutes.

Choose the teams you want to play. Click on one of the following links to choose your men's team ...

... or to choose a woman's team:

Arizona 2021 to Marquette 2019

Maryland 2006 to Stanford 2021

Tennessee to Washington 2007

We track all results - click here for all-time men's results and here for all-time women's results.

College  Basketball Reference references to player cards listed above - Caitlin ClarkJalen BrunsonCharles BarkleyLarry BirdMichael JordanA'ja WilsonBreanna StewartSue Bird (her UConn teammate Diana Taurasi may have been the greatest pro)Maya MooreTamika CatchingsBill WaltonWilt Chamberlain, Larry Bird

10 Steps to Play a Value Add Basketball Game

To play a Value Add Basketball Game enjoyed by more than 70,000 people and featured in Sports Sims Magazine:

Prep A.  Choose Teams. Choose the two schools you want to play against each other. Each team is one page: We list every men's and women's team in the game at the very bottom of this blog.

All-Time Great Teams for the Value Add Basketball Game. Look up the team you want to play, and the page you need to print. You can choose two of the all-time great women's teams:

If you play fantasy games, you can click the following link to get our 120 great all-time players. If using individual players from these sheets then you need to cut each of the 12 sheets into the 10 players each:

Great Players for Value Add Basketball Game FINAL

We will be adding the greatest 40 women's players for play fantasy sports rather than team replays. They will appear here when done.

Prep B: Pick up dice or print random fast action cards. You can purchase 4 dice (two traditional 6-sided dice of different colors, one 20-sided die and one 8-sided die) or print the Fast Action cars from either this drop box or website

Prep C: Print a Scoresheet from the top of the blog as a 2-page printout or up on this Google sheet.

10 Steps for Simple flow of the game. 

Once you have taken Prep steps A to C you can begin your game, then refer to the rest of these instructions to add slightly more advanced steps. We will walk through the basic steps based on the starting line-ups from our all-time championship game between Bill Walton's 1972 UCLA team (List H, page 25) and Michael Jordan's 1982 UNC (List E, page 22) shown at the top of the blog.

1. Fill Out Scoresheet. Write the names of all 10 players for each team. The five on the top row of the cards would be listed in order, so if you wrote in North Carolina on the left of the scoresheet referring to the screen shot at the top of the blog, you would list Jimmy Black first as the point guard (PG-1), then Matt Doherty, Michael Jordan, James Worthy and Sam Perkins.

2. Determine Team Dunk Range in 51-66. Write a "dunk range" at the top of the sheet for each team. UNC's players have a 51-55, but because UCLA has an Adjust Dunk Range of -7 those five numbers are erased and there is no dunk range (in more advanced rules below this "negative" range actually takes baskets away from UNC on a 51-52.). UCLA has a 51-65 dunk range, but UNC has a -12 which lowers UCLA's dunk range to 51-53 for the game. Scroll down to the green and red font charge below to compare each offense to the opposing defense to see the range to use for the whole game.

A GREEN RANGE on this chart means any roll in that range (max range 51-66) is a layup for the offensive team regardless of the result on the 20-sided die, unless the offense gets a 3-point shot.

A RED RANGE means that the defense stops the offense on a roll in that range regardless of the 20-sided die, and the defense can choose to have it recorded as a turnover or a missed shot - and if the chart calls for the defensive rebound chart and the ball would go to an offensive player, give it to the player playing defense on the shooter who missed the shot instead.

3. Game Starts 20-20, Each Player with 2 Points. Before the first roll, note that the game is tied 20-20 and the scoresheet shows that all 10 players have two points and a couple of other stats depending on position. This speeds up the time of play, and the assumption is that 22 possessions were already played during which every player scored once, and we have 44 possessions left to play (meaning the game is really a 66 to 75 possessions).

If playing a women's game, which uses quarters instead of halves, treat the game as starting with a 14-14 first quarter and the actual dice roll start with a 6-6 second quarter until the half is out. After the 17th possession (counting down on the scoresheet) the third quarter is considered to have ended for scoring purposes, but you do not need to halt play.

4. 8-sided Die Determines Which Player Gets the Ball. Roll the dice or pull a fast action card and look for the 1-8 number. If the 8-side die is a 1-5 then the ball goes to the player in that order in the game, so assuming all starters are in the game, a 1 goes to Black, 2 goes to Doherty, 3 to Jordan etc. If the roll is 6-8 then look for which players have extra numbers on the "Gets Ball On" and you will see that Worthy gets the ball on a 6, Perkins on a 7 and Jordan on an 8. The extra numbers are interchangeable, so if you have two 7s and one 8 in a game, you just decide before starting to roll which of the "7s" will get the ball on a 6 and which will get it on a 7.

5. Defensive Results on 11-66 Roll. Now that you know who has the ball, the corresponding player is guarding him. So if Jordan gets the ball, then Larry Farmer is guarding him. You need to decide at the beginning which 6-sided die is the 10s and which is the ones, so the dice roll shown above is a 32 because we made the red die the 10s and white die the 1s.  If the roll is 11-13 then Farmer steals the ball, if 21-23 he blocks a shot by Jordan, 35-36 he fouls Jordan - all on the left side of the defender (Farmer's) card. On a 41-42 Jordan would turn the ball over. If UCLA had the ball a 51-53 would be a dunk, but because UCLA's defense erases Jordan's 51-55 dunk range he cannot get a free dunk.

The numbers 31 and 32 are saved for special defenders, no matter who has the ball. When UCLA has the ball, Jordan will steal the ball from any player on a 31 because his steal range is 11-16 or 31. If UNC has the ball, Bill Walton blocks any players shot on a 32 because of his 21-26, 32. If playing more advanced rules below the defense is a little different on a 6-8 in the advance rules below, but playing the basic game assume only the card of the defender on the player is used unless a defender has a 31 or 32, which can either steal the ball or block a shot no matter who has the ball.

6. 20-sided Die Used for Shot if Nothing Happens on 11-66. If nothing happens on the 11-66 rule (in this match-up, nothing happens on a 14-16, 24-26, 31, 33-34 or 51-66) then you refer to the 1-20 roll on Jordan's card. On a 1-2 Jordan makes a 3-pointer, on a 2-9 he makes a 2-pointer, on a 10-12 he is fouled and gets 2 shots, on a 13-15 he misses a three-pointer and on a 16-20 he misses a 2-pointers.  The one time you use both rolls is if the defender fouls (35-36 in this case) in which case Farmer would have fouled Jordan and if he made a 3- or 2-pointer then the basket counts and he gets a free throw, and if he misses a 3-pointer while being fouled then he gets three fouls shots instead of 2.

7. Fouls Shots. For foul shots, roll the 20-sided die twice and Jordan's FT Made range is 1-14, so he makes it in that range or misses on a 15-20.

8. Rebounds on Missed Shots. If a shot or free throw is missed, then the following steps are followed to see who gets the rebound.

8a. On the "white" possessions on the scoresheet (43, 41, 39 ... 6, 4 or 2) the rebound goes to the defense and the scoresheet tells you which defensive player gets the rebound.

8b. On the "shaded" possessions (44, 42, 40 ... 5, 3, 1) you must refer to the rebound chart. Roll the 20-sided die and one of the 6-sided die. The 20-sided shows you which player has a chance at the rebound, based on the rebound chart on the right side of the scoresheet. To keep the focus on the same two players, if a 16 or 17 came up on a miss by UNC then the defensive Small Forward (Farmer, SF-3) has a chance at the rebound in his Defensive Rebound (Def Reb) range. On a 1-3 he gets the rebound, but on a 4-6 he fails to get it, meaning the player he is against (Jordan) gets the rebound and UNC can try to score again.

9. Update Score after each Possession. Once UCLA has the ball again, record a number in UNC's column to show their score next to possession 44. It might still be a 20 if they do not score, or a 21, 22, 23 or rarely could even be higher on a 3-point shot plus foul, or if a player makes a free throw and misses the second but his team gets the rebound and scores again.

10. Last 5 minutes of game. Notice that there is a diagonal box by each of the last 9 possessions. Normally just write the score above the diagonal. However, if either team is fouled, or steals the ball in one of those possessions, it creates an extra possession for both teams and play the extra possession and record an extra score in the bottom half of the box as well. If this does not happen to either team in the final 9 possessions then a total of 44 possessions are played. If one or the other team fouls or steals the ball in all 9 of those possessions then the game could actually take as many as 53 possessions. Since we are assuming 22 possessions were played through the 20-20 tie before our first dice roll, in effect each game is 66 to 75 possessions.

If the game ends in a tie, then play another 9 possessions at the end on a new scoresheet using the diagonal lines to determine the winner.

Details, Background and Advanced Rules (the rest is optional)

After reading to this point in the blog you can play games. If you are comfortable with the rules then you can read further to add more advanced rules from strategies, to home court advantage, to substitutions and team defense on rolls of 6, 7 or 8 or changing who players are guarding and playing soft defense to avoid fouls.

Substitution Options

Perhaps most important is how much to use bench players. A few options:

1. You can just play the five starters on the top row of each team to keep the game very simple, and if one fouls out then use the bench player under him. in that case each bench player gets their two points at the beginning of the game as marked on the scoresheet.

2. You can use the entire bottom row of bench players for 7 possessions during the game, either putting them in at the beginning for possessions 44-38 and then using the top row starters for the final possessions 37-1, or putting the bottom lime in at some point in the game. 

This is pretty accurate since the average starter plays 48 possessions in a 66 possession game, so that would assume each player had 11 possessions during the 20-20 tie, and the starters then play 37 more for 48 total.

3. The most accurate method is to use each player for only the number of possessions adding up to his Stamina number of 5 to 44. A player with a 44 plays the whole game - and we let everyone play all overtime possessions. If you use this advanced method, and a player plays more possessions than his stamina then start to adjust every roll against him by 1 (so the other team can change both the 11-66 and the 1-20 one number either way to get a worse result for the tired player). If a player plays more than twice his possessions, then we allow each roll to be adjust by 2.

On the bottom of each card we list the possessions on which we use each player. We also put pennies on players who only get the ball on a 1-5, then dimes on players who get the ball on on extra number of 6-8. We always count numbers left to right, and when a player on the top row and bottom row at the same position are in the game we count the top player first and the bottom player second (so if both point guards are in the game, we give the ball to the top starter on a 1 and bottom reserve on a 2 on the 8-sided die). We also go left to right on the dimes for the 6-8.

If one player gets the ball on two extra numbers, such as the player on the far right below who would get the ball on a 7 or 8. Pete Maravich gets the ball on a 2, 6, 7 or 8 in LSU games.

History of Playing the Game

Sims Magazine ran a great piece on how the Value Add Basketball Game was created. 

The earliest team is Wyoming's 1943 squad, and near the end of the 2023 season we added several of the top teams from the 2022 and 2023 seasons. Players cards are calculated with great precision (see Sports Illustrated article on the creator's basketball ratings) to recreate their performances adjusted for factors such as level of competition faced and to let all eras play a modern 70 possession game. 

The UCLA team defeated Michael Jordan's UNC for our all-time title, then Tennessee ironically defeated the women's champs from the same season Jordan won the title, the Louisiana Tech champs. The UCLA team does appear to be the best of the 200 men's teams, while the 2016 UConn team appears to be the best women's teams even though they were upset in our all-time Final Four. Your results will vary just as upsets occur in real games. It generally takes us 35-45 minutes to play a game, but it will take a bit longer to play your first few games as you get familiar with the flow of the game.

More in-depth explanation of 10-steps to play the game

If you choose to use dice, you will need to buy an 8-sided die; two 6-sided dice of different colors to give a roll of 11-66; and a 20-sided die. You can also watch this video. Click here to review all dice rolls for an entire game.

If you use the fast action cards then the top two lines on the first card you flip replaces the 8-sided die to see who gets the ball, and also replaces the 11-66 roll to see if the defense steals, blocks the shot, fouls, forces a turnover or allows a dunk, and the 8-sided die roll

If you want to print and cut out the fast action cards instead of using the dice, here is a quick video on the best way to shuffle.

REFERENCE CHART for RESULTS. Finally, print out the next two charts, which give the results of the 11-66 roll on each possession, which is spelled out a bit more on the fast action cards. 

8-sided die determines which player gets the ball:

You can cut out the 10 cards to rotate players, but I just leave the 10 players on the sheet and put coins on the players in the game. In this case the 5 Michigan State starters (top row) are in the game, so on a roll of 1,2,3,4 or 5 you read straight across the cards from left to right with Magic Johnson (point guard far left) getting the ball on a "1" and Greg Kesler (far right) getting the ball on a "5."

The 6,7 and 8 rolls go to players with a 6,7 or 8 after their "get ball on" range under their name. For quick reference on who gets those, I put dimes on the players who get those rolls, so the first dime left to right gets it on a "6" (Magic on this sheet), the next dime gets it on the "7" (Vincent) and the third dime gets it on an "8" (Kesler). 

If you have a (6), (7) or (8) the player has the option to claim one of the extra numbers but only if there are not enough extra numbers among the other four players on the court. If the team has too many extra numbers on the court, then you can choose one player who is not using their 6, 7 or 8 number to have the advantage of lowering the 1-20 roll if they shoot. However, when playing with great players instead of teams, you only get to lower the number if they drop TWO extra numbers. This could only happen if Pete Maravich or Caitlin Clark dropped two numbers to go from 1-6-7-8 to 1-6 or if another player dropped from 3 numbers to just their 1-5 number.

A second option (instead of using coins) is to write out your line-up rotation like we did below for a game between the 2021 Baylor and 1967 UCLA teams.

On the 8-sided die, if the roll is a 1-5, then the ball goes to the player based on who is in that column. If the roll is 6, 7 or 8 then look for that number - only the players with an extra number on their actual card above can have an extra number, but as you see Kareem Abdul-Jabbar has two extra numbers so actually gets the ball on a 5, 7 or 8.

Next check two dice 11-66 roll:

The 11-66 roll (determine which color 6-sided die is the 10s and which is the 1s before the game) determines if their is a steal (11-16 or 31 on defender's card), blocked shot (21-26 or 32 on defender's card), foul (33-36 on defender's card), turnover (41-46 on offensive player's card) or dunk/uncontested basket (51-66 based on dunk chart combination of offensive and defensive card).

Follow the chart below to see the result of the 11-66 roll.

Note on the dunk range that in the advanced rules if the defenses adjustment takes the dunks below 50 then the red numbers in the chart below creates a 'stop." In our actual UNC vs UCLA final UNC's range was actually a red 51-52, meaning if those came up they failed to score and UCLA got the ball. In that game if Jordan had the ball and a 51 or 52 were rolled, he would miss a shot and Farmer would get the rebound. Note below the dunk chart used to double check what the DUNK or STOP range are, we have added the new Advanced Jack Gohlke "Dunk Range" Rule.

One of the most important advanced rules for accuracy is using the right side of the chart for defensive 11-66 results. If the 8-sided die is a 6- 7- or 8- then the 11-26 potential steals and blocks are based on team defense. A 14-16 is no longer a steal if the 8-sided die was a 6-8. However, any defensive player with  an 11-13 can steal the ball on an 11. Any player with a 11-16 steal can steal it in 11 or 12. Finally any player with a 31 can steal it in a 13.

The same is true for blocks after a 6-8. Any defender with a 21-23 can block the shot on a 21, any 21-26 can block on a 22, and any 32 can block on a 23. But a 24-26 is never blocked on a 6-8.

Advanced Jack Gohlke "Dunk Range" Rule

On April 23, 2024, we made an adjustment to the Value Add Basketball Game regarding the result if a roll of 51-66 falls within a players dunk range (or stop range). We call this the Jack Gohlke Rule. You can still use the basic rule, which is that the offense has the option of changing the result of a 20-sided die roll to a "2-point basket made" if the 11-66 dice result in a "Dunk." However, or the more accurate results, follow these instructions for a roll in the dunk range:

In most cases the player has a "Dunk Range" of 51 or higher, which is adjusted by the defenders "Adj" + or minus. So a 51-53 range, and a -1 on the defenders card would be a 51-52 dunk range for the game. If the roll is within the range use this chart to convert the result of the 20-sided die roll:

Result on 20-sided die                             If two 6-sided die falls in players dunk range (adjusted by defenders + or -)      
3-point shot maderemains 3-point shot made
2-point shot maderemains 2-point shot made
FTx2 - fouled and 2 free throwsStill fouled, but 2-point basket good and 1 free throw
Missed 3-pointerDOUBLE 3-point made range (e.g. 1-5 becomes 1-10) and roll 20-sided die again. Result is within doubled range then 3-point shot good, if outside range then 3-point shot missed.
Missed 2-pointer2-point shot made

If the result of the dunk range plus or minus the defenders "adj" is less than 50, then the player instead has a STOP range. This can be found in red on the chart in the instructions, but for every number below 50 a STOP range is created above 50. So a 51-47 and a -1 on defense adds up to a 51-46 dunk range. Since 46 is 4 less than 50, a STOP range of 51-54 is created - but you can look this up on the dunk chart in the instructions rather than try to do the math. If the roll is within a player's stop range, then one of the following two things happens:
If STOP Range instead of DUNK RangeIf two 6-sided die falls in players STOP range, which means result of dunk range adjusted by + or - defense is less than 50.
If PG or SG (2 players furthest LEFT on sheet in game)Ignore 20-sided die - result is TURNOVER
If SF, PF or C (other 3 players in game)Ignore 20-sided die - result is missed shot and defender guarding players gets rebound.

20-sided die for shot or drawing foul

The 20-sided die is ignored if a steal, blocked shot, or turnover happen on the 11-66 roll above.

If a FOUL results from a 33-36 roll being in the defender's range, then refer to the 20-sided number on the offensive player's card to see if he also made a 3-pointer or 2-pointer and therefore gets one foul shot plus the basket, or was fouled on a 3-point shot and thus gets 3 shots, or on other results if he simply gets two free throws.

If a DUNK results from the 51-66 roll in a green range above, then the offensive player scores a 2-point basket UNLESS he chooses to take the result of the 20-sided card. This could either be because he made a 3-point shot on the 20-sided die or if he draws a foul on the 20-sided die and it results in the opposing defender fouling out.

If NOTHING results on the 11-66 roll then the result of the 20-sided die is the result of the play. In the case of Magic's card above he makes a 3-pointer on a "1," makes a 2-pointer on a 2 to 7, draws a foul to get two free throws on an 8 to 12, misses a 3-pointer on a 13 to 15, and misses a two pointer on a 16 to 20.

20-sided die for free throws

If at any point the player gets fouled then use the 20-sided die for his free throws.

Optional Advanced Rules Die Roll Adjustments

You can choose to use either or both of the following advanced rules before a game.

1. Home Court Advantage. A roll of 36 when the visiting team has the ball is changed to a 66 (meaning the ref missed a foul he should have called on the home team) or when the home team has the ball change a roll of 66 to a 36 (thus making a bad foul call against the visiting team unless the defender is very good at avoiding fouls). On average, this will help the home team about 3 points during the game.

2. Tired player. If a player plays more possessions in a game then his "Stamina" number then any time he has the ball or is defending the player with the ball, the other team can adjust both the 11-66 roll and 20-sided die roll one number in either direction for a better result (e.g. Magic's Stamina of 44 means he can play the whole game without running out of Stamina, but the other guard Mike Brkovich has a Stamina of 37 so if you played him all 44 possessions then the last 7 possessions of the game the opponent can adjust all rolls involving him by one). If a player plays DOUBLE his possessions then the other team can adjust the 20-sided or 11-66 roll by TWO in either direction (for example Draymond Green on another Michigan State team has a great card but low stamina because it was from his freshman year, so if you choose to play him the whole game then most of the game rolls would be moved two numbers against him).

Set Up to Play the Game

Once everything is printed up, put the visiting team on the left (Michael Jordan's 1982 UNC on the left).

Decide at the outset if it is actually a road game requiring flipping 36 and 66 rolls, or is actually on a neutral court.

The five players on the top row are recommended starters (though you choose to start other players). However, it is better to have the best players FINISH the game without running out of Stamina. For UNC, four of the five starters have a Stamina of at least 44, so they can be in the game for every possession. However, Michael Jordan's Stamina is 41, and we do not want him to be tired on the final three possessions of the game when he might be needed for a game-winner (in our All-Time March Madness he actually needed to score on the final possession in both the Round of 64 and Round of 32 to survive).

Therefore, we picked the best reserve (Chris Brust) to play the first three possessions (the 44th, 43rd and 42nd on the score sheet) so that once Jordan comes into the game (41st possession) he will be operating at full strength all the way to the final (1) possession of the game. (We do NOT treat players as tired in overtime since all players are tired.)

To show which player is in the game we put a coin on the five players on the court at any given time. 

Every time UNC gets the ball or gets an offensive rebound, all 4 dice are rolled and the 8-sided die determines who gets the ball. If the roll is a "1" it goes to the first player to the left with a coin of any kind (Black). A "2" goes to the next player to the right with a coin (Doherty), a "3" to the next player to the right with a coin (Worthy), the "4" to the next player to the right, which we consider Brust even though he is directly below Worthy so actually just as far right, and a "5" goes to the furthest player to the right, the Center Perkins.

Only players with a dime (2 numbers on the "Gets Ball on" line) can get the ball on a roll of 6, 7 or 8. 

On a "6" we still go left to right, but looking for the first DIME, which is Worthy. A "7" goes to the next dime which is Brust, and an "8" goes to the final dime which is Perkins.

You can choose to change the order or possessions before you start rolling. For example, when Jordan comes in after three possessions we chose to make him the Shooting Guard, or in the "2" spot, and move Doherty to the "3" spot, so Jordan actually got the ball on a 2 or 6, and Doherty got the ball on a 3, instead of a 2 like when Brust was in for the first three possessions.

Here is UNC's coin alignment after Jordan comes into the game.

The UCLA starters all feature a Stamina of 37, so we actually start the game with all reserves on the court for the first seven possessions.

Therefore at the start of the game a roll of 1 goes to Hill, 2 to Chapman, 3 to Curtis, 4 to Hollyfield and 5 to Nater.

Since only Hollyfield and Nater have a dime for having more than one "Get Ball on" numbers, a "6" goes to Hollyfield and a "7" goes to Nater,but an "8" goes to no one.

If the ball does not go to anyone on an "8" (or occasionally for a team that does not have dimes for a "6" or "7" roll) then the team has one more chance to get the ball to someone before the shot clock runs out. 

Roll all four dice again, and a 1-5 still goes to the same player as on a first roll. However, on the second roll dimes are ignored so a 6-8 is always a turnover on a shot clock violation.

After seven possessions, all five UCLA starters enter the game, for this line-up.

Notice when the UCLA starters enter the games, the three players have pennies because they only have one "Get Ball on" number. All-American Henry Bibby has the first dime - 2(SG) or 6 - so gets the roll on a roll of 6. However, notice that Bill Walton gets the ball so much - 5(C)7 or 8 - that two dimes are placed on his card to indicate he gets the ball not only on a roll of 5, but also 7 or 8.

Once decisions are made on who will play when, we write in the names on the score sheet, which you must use to keep track of time and for the rebound chart to determine who gets rebounds after a missed shot on shaded possessions. Note that because we are starting the game with a 20-20 tie and 22 possessions already being "played," players each start with two points, one foul, at least one rebound and depending on position some other stats.

Optional pace rule for high possession teams.

While starting the game 20-20 with 44-53 possessions left to play is normally realistic, certain teams play at a much faster pace. This optional rule allows you to use two scoresheet to play extra possessions.

The fastest paced team ever was Loya Marymount with a +26 on their card. This means you start with 26 possessions left on one scoresheet, and then when do e with that sheet transfer the score to another sheet and play 44 more possessions.

Step 1 determine each team's pace - Determine the pace for each team. For teams since 2002, you can go to or another site to see the pace (number of possessions per game) for each team. For example the two fastest pace teams in the 2021 tournament were Gonzaga (round to 74 possessions) and Alabama (73), while the two slowest pace teams were Virginia (62) and Mount St. Mary's (60). For teams from before 2002 or if you don't have the pace, average their points scored per game and points allow per game - so the highest estimated pace in history would be the 1990 Loyola Marymount team which average winning 122-108 - average those two together for 115 as the average of 122 and 108. We then subtract 79 (in their case leaving 39) and the take 2-3rds of that number for our extra possessions for that team (+26).

Step 2 adjust if either team's pace is higher than 70. If both team's pace is 70 or lower then the score starts at the normal 20-20 score. However, for each team that is higher then add a possession to the starting score on a new scoresheet. If Gonzaga (74) played Alabama (73) then you would +4 for Gonzaga's pace and +3 for Alabama's pace to start at possession 51 instead of 44.

Once the score sheet is filled in, the dice and sheets printed above an be laid out however, you want, but this is the layout that works best for me.

Rolling the Dice to Start the Game

You roll all 4 dice on every possession and attempt to shoot again after an offensive rebound. The only times you roll fewer are for a free throw (only 20-sided die) or on shaded possessions on the Score sheets when you roll the 20-sided dies and one of the 6-side die to see who gets the rebound on the rebound chart in the bottom right of the Score sheet (the defense always gets the rebound on the possessions that are not shaded.

In addition to these instructions, you can click on the detailed instructions or click here for both this blog and the detailed blog combined into one google doc with page numbers.

For background, the Value Add Basketball Game grew out of the college basketball rankings of thousands of players each season developed by John Pudner and featured in these stories in Sports IllustratedESPNNBC SportsFox Sports and many others.

The following would be the results of some sample dice rolls in a UCLA vs. UNC game using the cards at the top of the blog, and showing what the dice roll was and then what would be written on the bottom part of the score sheet in addition to recording how many points, rebounds, steals, blocks and fouls by each player:

One note on the last entry, it refers to the dunk range being 51-54, but it actually is 51-53 as noted above.

The results are recorded in this manner from the 44th to the 10th possession - the first 3 columns.

The Last 9 Possessions

Note that the final 9 possessions have a diagonal line through each possession for each team.

Normally you only use the top left section of each possession.

However, in the following scenarios, you will also use the bottom right section for an extra possession:

EXTRA POSSESSIONS. If either team is fouled during the possession, then both teams get an extra possession so use the bottom section below the diagonal for both teams.

1. TRY FOR STEAL, OR FOUL INTENTIONALLY. The team that is losing can choose to go for the "turnover or intentional foul" to get the extra possession. If this option is used, then do not roll the 20-sided die. If the result of the 11-66 roll is a turnover or a steal, then use that result, but if not then the result is a foul and two shots. In any case, an extra possession is created. Note this is the only time that a turnover (that is not a steal) creates an extra possession. Keep in mind this should only be used on the top portion of the last nine possessions - never use it during the roll for the bottom half possessions since that does not create and extra possession.

2. STEALS AND FAST BREAKS. If either of the two guards steals the ball during a possession, or if either forward steals the ball on an odd roll (11, 13, 15 or 31) then the team has the option of running a fast break. The advantage of a fast break is that the 20-sided die roll is lowered by one. As indicated on the chart, when a fast break is run the player making the steal has the ball on a 6, 7 or 8 as indicated on the right side of the chart. If either team chooses a fast break then use the bottom possession (below the diagonal) for both teams. 

Normally a fast break should be used because it gives the team a 5% better chance at making a 3-pointer and a 5% better chance at scoring on the 20-sided dice. The two times a team could choose NOT to use a fast break when they have a chance is a) a team that is ahead may choose not to run a fast break so that the extra possession is not used, and b) if a weak offensive player makes the steal they may choose not to use the fast break since 50% of the time (4 of 8 rolls) the player who makes the steal will be the one to try to score. If a the team stealing the ball chooses not to run a fast break, then simply roll the dice with a new possession.

3. TRY TO SCORE AFTER OFFENSIVE POSSESSION. The other time a team gets a chance to lower the roll on the 20-sided die by 1 is after getting an offensive rebound. If that happens, the player getting the offensive rebound attempts to score on a 6-8 roll in addition to his one other number, as indicated on the right side of the dice chart. The 20-sided die is lowered by one, however, if the player getting the offensive rebound gets a result of "made 3-point shot" then it is changed to "made 2-point shot" since he is already near the rim when grabbing the offensive rebound.

As is the case with the option to run a fast break, a team will usually try to score on an offensive rebound because of the 5% better chance of scoring, and because a team that gets the offensive rebound and chooses to run the offense rolls a 6, 7 or 8 that results in no player getting the ball, then a turnover is recorded (teams only get a 20-second shot clock after an offensive rebound). However, in two cases a team may choose to instead run their usual offense for one of two reasons; a) the player getting the offensive rebound is not a good offensive player and they would rather give other players a better chance to take the shot, or b) the team is behind late and needs a 3-point shot and would rather run the regular offense so the player getting the offensive rebound can make a 3-pointer if eh gets the shot.

Because any, all or none of the last 9 possessions could create an extra possession, a game could be considered to have as many as 75 possessions (or as few as 66 possessions, though either title includes the 22 possessions we do not really play out that results in the 20-20 game start).

TRYING FOR 3-POINTER. Another strategy option that can be used by a team desperate for a 3-pointer in the final few possessions, is to try for a 3-pointer. If this is called, then every player on their team can add a 3-point made number for every 2-point made number that is turned into a missed shot with the rebound going to the defense - but no player can more than DOUBLE their range.

For example, if UNC was down three points in their final possession they could call for trying for a 3-pointer. If the ball then went to Jordan, he could make a 3-point shot on a 1-4 instead of his normal 1-2 (doubling his range). However, because he added two 3-point numbers, the highest 2 numbers on his made 2-point shot must be changed to missed 3-point shot and defensive rebound, so a 8 or 9 would be missed with UCLA grabbing the rebound. Note that the range cannot be more than doubled, so even if UCLA tried for a 3-pointer, if the ball went to Bill Walton he cannot make a 3-pointer because he has none on his card. If you had to have a 3-pointer on the final trip, UCLA might put in Larry Hollyfield for the final possession so that if the ball went to the center he would be able to make a game-tying shot on a 1-4 instead of it going to Walton where he could only score 2.

Finally, a team might choose to try to avoid fouling to not stop the clock (if they are ahead) or if a player already has four fouls. If this strategy is chosen and the player is on defense, then any roll of 32-36 becomes a score for the player he is guarding unless a teammate blocks a shot on a 32. Please note that a player still might commit a 5th foul if the player he is guarding draws a foul on his card. 

At the end of the last possession,  the game is over unless the score is tied.

If the score is tied, the game goes to overtime, and 9 more possessions are played using the same rules as the last nine possessions or regulation. You may want to write them off to the right of those possessions.

End of Instructions - The following is some additional information and links to advanced rules.

Rule adjustments that were made after playing games and identifying minor problems.

The player getting an offensive rebound or stealing the ball with a chance for a potential fast break originally was able to try to score directly on the 20s-sided die without rolling the other dice. This proved a big distortion, and was chanced to the player has a 50-50 chance of getting the shot and it can still be stolen or his shot blocked with just the one die number adjustment.

Originally all turnovers on rolls of 41-46 were the same. However, now if a turnover occurs on a roll of 43 or 46, it is also an offensive foul. This study shows that (not counting steals) a total of 28.7% of all other turnovers were the result of an offensive foul, and this adjustment reflects that frequency for most players. 

Table of Contents: Advanced Rules, Instructions

The information above includes everything you need to play basic games, the following is additional detail with a Table of Contents to show you where to find information or clarify any part of the game you find confusing.

Starting to play the Value Add Basketball Game In VABG, each player card is carefully calibrated to measure his ability to score, draw fouls, rebound, avoid turnovers and committing fouls, block shots, and steal the ball. This yields a player card that provides accurate chances to be successful in each of these areas against a standard level of competition (e.g. a player with the exact same stats playing against high-level defenses will have a card that accurately reflects how much better he would be than a player who put together the exact same stats facing much weaker defenses.)

We have played off an entire tournament of the 96 all-time great teams from the 1940s through UVa’s 2019 champions and the 2020 tournament that was canceled in real life. Results and updates are posted at and these games were used to find and adjust any inaccuracies or items that made the game more difficult to play.

The Addenda referenced in these instructions appear at, but due to perfecting the game with various updates since the introduction in February 2019 we were asked to produce a clean copy in PDF form with chronological instructions.

The following is the table of contents to find any aspect of the game that does not make sense or simply to clarify a result that may be confusing in the Addenda.

Simply click here to access the entire google doc including all of the topics outlined below or click here for the blog with the detailed instructions for everything in the Table of Contents.

To access all items in the Table of Contents listed above, you can click on the detailed instructions that are one of three options for following the directions to play the Value Add Basketball Game. The most popular instructions are these Quick Start instructions used by more than 30,000 as of April 2020 are the blog you now have open as you read this. If you use google docs, you can click here to access the combined instructions that contain both the Quick Start instructions you are reading now and the detailed instructions from the link above. That last option is a google doc which makes it much easier to find specific items because the pages are numbered to correspond with the numbers on the Table of Contents below, however because some people do not use google docs we provide the other two options in these blogs.

List of all All-Time Great Teams in the Game and Player Link

Rule adjustments that 

Print Page        Google Doc AB - Men's Teams                              
2Alabama - 1977 - Reggie King
3Alabama - 2023 - Brandon Miller
4Arizona - 1997 - Mike Bibby
5Arizona - 2015 - Stanley Johnson
6Arizona St. - 1980 - Byron Scott
7Arkansas - 1978 - Sidney Moncrief
8Arkansas - 1994 - Corliss Williamson
9Arkansas - 2021 - JD Notae
10Auburn - 1984 - Charles Barkley
11Auburn - 2019 - Chuma Okeke
12Baylor - 2021 - Jared Butler
13Boston College - 2006 - Jared Dudley
14Bradley - 1950 - Elmer Behnke
15Brigham Young - 1981 - Danny Ainge
16Buffalo - 2019 - Jeenathan Williams
17Butler - 2010 - Gordon Hayward
18California - 1959 - Jack Grout
19Central Florida - 2019 - Joey Graham
20Charlotte - 1977 - Cedric "Cornbread" Maxwell
21Cincinnati - 1960 - Oscar Robertson
22Cincinnati - 2002 - Jason Maxiell
23Clemson - 1987 - Horace Grant
24Colorado - 2021 - McKinley Wright
25Connecticut - 1999 - Richard Hamilton
26Connecticut - 2004 - Ben Gordon
Print PageGoogle Doc B - Men's Teams
2Connecticut - 2023 - Adama Sanogo
3Creighton - 2014 - Doug McDermott
4Creighton - 2020 - Ty-Shon Alexander
5Creighton - 2023 - Ryan Kalkbrenner
6Davidson - 2008 - Stephen Curry
7Dayton - 1967 - Don May
8Dayton - 2020 - Obi Toppin
9DePaul - 1945 - George Mikan
10DePaul - 1980 - Mark Aguirre
11Drake - 1969 - Willie McCarter
12Duke - 1986 - Johnny Dawkins
13Duke - 1992 - Christian Laettner
14Duke - 2001 - Shane Battier
15Duke - 2010 - Jon Scheyer
16Duke - 2015 - Justise Winslow
17Duke - 2022 - Wendell Moore
18Florida - 2006 - Joakim Noah
19Florida Atlantic - 2023 - Johnell Davis
20Florida St. - 1993 - Charlie Ward
21George Mason - 2006 - Jai Lewis
22Georgetown - 1984 - Patrick Ewing
23Georgetown - 2007 - Roy Hibbert
24Georgia - 1982 - Dominique Wilkins
25Georgia Tech - 1990 - Dennis Scott
26Georgia Tech - 2004 - Jarrett Jack
Print PageGoogle Doc C - Men's Teams
2Gonzaga - 2017 - Nigel Williams-Goss
3Gonzaga - 2023 - Drew Timme
4Holy Cross - 1950 - Bob Cousy
5Houston - 1968 - Elvin Hayes
6Houston - 1983 - Hakeem Olajuwon
7Houston - 2021 - Quentin Grimes
8Illinois - 1989 - Nick Anderson
9Illinois - 2005 - Deron Williams
10Indiana - 1976 - Scott May
11Indiana - 1981 - Isaiah Thomas
12Indiana - 2002 - Jared Jeffries
13Indiana St. - 1979 - Larry Bird
14Iowa - 2001 - Reggie Evans
15Iowa - 2021 - Luka Garza
16Iowa St. - 2014 - DeAndre Kane
17Jacksonville - 1970 - Artis Gilmore
18James Madison University - 2024 -
19Kansas - 1957 - Wilt Chamberlain
20Kansas - 1988 - Danny Manning
21Kansas - 1997 - Paul Pierce
22Kansas - 2008 - Mario Chalmers
23Kansas - 2022 - Ochai Agbaji
24Kansas St. - 2008 - Michael Beasley
25Kansas St. - 2023 - Markquis Nowell
26Kentucky - 1948 - Alex Groza
Print PageGoogle Doc D - Men's Teams
2Kentucky - 1970 - Dan Issel
3Kentucky - 1996 - Antoine Walker
4Kentucky - 2012 - Anthony Davis
5La Salle - 1954 - Tom Gola
6Liberty - 2023 - Darius McGhee
7Louisville - 1980 - Darrell Griffith
8Louisville - 2013 - Russ Smith
9Loyola Marymount - 1990 - Bo Kimble
10Loyola-Chicago - 1963 - Jerry Harkness
11Loyola-Chicago - 2018 - Cameron Krutwig
12LSU - 1970 - Pete Maravich
13LSU - 1992 - Shaquille O'Neal
14LSU - 2006 - Glen Davis
15Marquette - 1955 - Terry Rand
16Marquette - 1971 - Jim Chones
17Marquette - 1977 - Butch Lee
18Marquette - 1994 - Jim McIlvaine
19Marquette - 2003 - Dwyane Wade
20Marquette - 2011 - Jimmy Butler
21Marquette - 2023 - Tyler Kolek
22Maryland - 1984 - Len Bias
23Maryland - 2002 - Juan Dixon
24Massachusetts - 1996 - Marcus Camby
25Memphis - 2008 - Derrick Rose
26Miami - 1965 - rick barry
Print PageGoogle Doc E - Men's Teams
2Miami - 2013 - Shane Larkin
3Miami - 2023 - Norchad Omier
4Michigan - 1965 - Cazzie Russell
5Michigan - 1989 - Glen Rice
6Michigan - 2013 - Trey Burke
7Michigan St. - 1979 - Magic Johnson
8Michigan St. - 2000 - Mateen Cleaves
9Michigan St. - 2009 - Draymond Green
10Minnesota - 1977 - Kevin McHale
11Mississippi - 2001 - Justin Reed
12Mississippi St. - 2005 - Lawrence Roberts
13Missouri - 1982 - Steve Stipanovich
14Murray St. - 2019 - Ja Morant
15Navy - 1986 - David Robinson
16Nebraska - 2014 - Terran Petteway
17Nevada - 2004 - Kirk Snyder
18New Mexico - 1974 - Bernard Hardin
19New Mexico St. - 1970 - Jimmy Collins
20Niagara - 1970 - Calvin Murphy
21North Carolina - 1957 - Lennie Rosenbluth
22North Carolina - 1982 - Michael Jordan
23North Carolina - 1998 - Vince Carter
24North Carolina - 2005 - Sean May
25North Carolina - 2022 - Armando Bacot
26North Carolina St. - 1974 - David Thompson
Print PageGoogle Doc F - Men's Teams
2Northwestern - 2017 - Vic Law
3Notre Dame - 1970 - Austin Carr
4Notre Dame - 1981 - Orlando Woolridge
5Ohio St. - 1960 - Jerry Lucas
6Ohio St. - 2007 - Greg Oden
7Oklahoma - 1985 - Wayman Tisdale
8Oklahoma - 2016 - Buddy Hield
9Oklahoma St. - 1946 - Bob Kurland
10Oklahoma St. - 2004 - John Lucas
11Oregon - 2017 - Dillon Brooks
12Oregon St. - 1982 - AC Green
13Penn St. - 2018 - Tony Carr
14Pittsburgh - 2009 - DeJuan Blair
15Princeton - 1965 - Bill Bradley
16Princeton - 2023 - Tosan Evbuomwan
17Providence - 1987 - Billy Donovan
18Purdue - 1969 - Rick Mount
19Purdue - 2018 - Carsen Edwards
20Richmond - 2011 - Justin Harper
21Rutgers - 1976 - Phil Sellers
22San Diego St. - 2011 - Kawhi Leonard
23San Diego St. - 2023 - Jaedon LeDee
24San Francisco - 1956 - Bill Russell
25Seattle - 1958 - Elgin Baylor
26Seton Hall - 1989 - John Morton
Print PageGoogle Doc G - Men's Teams
2Seton Hall - 2020 - Myles Powell
3SMU - 2017 - Semi Ojeleye
4South Carolina - 1973 - Mike Dunleavy
5South Carolina - 2017 - Sindarius Thornwell
6St. Bonaventure - 1970 - Bob Lanier
7St. Joe's - 2004 - Jameer Nelson
8St. John's - 1985 - Chris Mullin
9St. Mary's - 2023 - Logan Johnson
10St. Peter's - 2022 - Doug Edert
11Stanford - 2008 - Brook Lopez
12Stephen f austin - 2016 - Thomas Walkup
13Syracuse - 1987 - Rony Seikaly
14Syracuse - 2003 - Carmelo Anthony
15TCU - 2023 - JaKobe Coles
16Temple - 1958 - Guy Rodgers
17Tennessee - 1977 - Bernard King
18Tennessee - 2023 - Santiago Vescovi
19Texas - 2003 - T.J. Ford
20Texas - 2023 - Marcus Carr
21Texas A&M - 2007 - Acie Law
22Texas Tech - 2019 - Jarrett Culver
23Tulsa - 2000 - Eric Coley
24UCLA - 1967 - Kareem Abdul-Jabbar
25UCLA - 1972 - Bill Walton
26UCLA - 2006 - Jordan Farmar
Print PageGoogle Doc H - Men's Teams
2UCLA - 2021 - Jaime Jaquez
3UNLV - 1987 - Armen Gilliam
4UNLV - 1991 - Larry Johnson
5USC - 2021 - Evan Mobley
6Utah - 1998 - Andre Miller
7UTEP (Texas Western) - 1966 - Bobby Joe Hill
8Vanderbilt - 1993 - Bill McCaffrey
9VCU - 1985 - Calvin Duncan
10VCU - 2011 - Bradford Burgess
11Villanova - 1985 - Ed Pinckney
12Villanova - 2018 - Mikal Bridges
13Virginia - 1981 - Ralph Sampson
14Virginia - 2019 - Kyle Guy
15Virginia Tech - 1986 - Dell Curry
16Wake Forest - 1996 - Tim Duncan
17Wake Forest - 2005 - Chris Paul
18Washington - 2006 - Brandon Roy
19Washington St. - 2008 - Taylor Rochestie
20West Virginia - 1959 - Jerry West
21West Virginia - 2010 - Kevin Jones
22Western Kentucky - 1966 - Clem Haskins
23Wichita St. - 2013 - Fred VanVleet
24Wisconsin - 2015 - Frank Kaminsky
25Wyoming - 1943 - Ken Sailors
26Xavier - 2023 - Jack Nunge
Print PageGoogle doc - Women's Teams
Not yetAuburn - 2009 - KeKe Carrier
1Baylor - 2019 - Brittney Griner
2Baylor - 2012 - Kalani Brown
3Connecticut - 2016 - Maya Moore
4Connecticut - 2010 - Breanna Stewart
5Duke - 2016 - Alison Bales
Not YetGeorgia - 2013 - Jasmine James
Not YetIowa - 2023 - Caitlin Clark
Not YetKentucky - 2013 - A'dia Mathies
6Long Beach State - 1987 - Cindy Brown
Not YetLouisiana State - 2023 - Angel Reese
7Louisiana Tech - 1982 - Pam Kelly
8Louisville - 2014 - Shoni Schimmel
Not YetMarquette - 2019 - Chloe Marotta
Not YetMaryland - 2006 - Crystal Langhorne
9Mississippi State - 2018 - Victoria Vivians
Not YetNorth Carolina - 2007 - Erlana Larkins
10Notre Dame - 2018 - Arike Ogunbowale
11Ohio State - 2016 - Kelsey Mitchell
Not YetOklahoma - 2010 - Abi Olajuwon
12Old Dominion - 1980 - Nancy Lieberman
13Oregon - 2019 - Sabrina Ionescu
Not YetPenn State - 2012 - Maggie Lucas
Not YetPurdue - 2003 - Shereka Wright
Not YetRutgers - 2007 - Kia Vaughn
14South Carolina - 2017 - A'ja Wilson
15Stanford - 2021 - Kiana Williams
16Tennessee - 1998 - Chamique Holdsclaw
17Texas - 2018 - Ariel Atkins
18Texas A&M - 2011 - Danielle Adams
Not YetTexas Tech - 1993 - Sheryl Swoopes
Not YetUCLA - 2018 - Monique Billings
19USC - 1983 - Cheryl Miller
Not YetVanderbilt - 2002 - Chantelle Anderson
Not YetVirginia - 2018 - Dominique Toussaint
20Washington - 2017 - Kelsey Plum


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