Sunday, February 24, 2019

Value Add Basketball Game (VABG) Instructions

Quick Start Rules and Sample Dice Rolls to Play VABG


The first section of these game instructions let's you start playing a game immediately by seeing each dice scenario play out.
Once you have read the instructions, everything you need to play the game is on the score sheet and player cards. Click here and here to see our results of an all-time March Madness, or on this Facebook video walking through the setup and start of a game if you are a visual learner.  We line up these Kansas and Kentucky line-ups for the sample game we will reference below.







Rebounding Chart referenced above is at the very bottom of this blog, and it is the one advanced rule we strongly recommend using even if you use only the basic rules from above. If you choose not to use the rebound chart, then the defense gets all missed shots. The following Table of Contents let's you choose which Advanced Rules you want to use for a more accurate game.

Table of Contents (search for words listed to find section)


1.       Quick Start Rules and Sample Dice Rolls to Play VABG (the second above this table)

2.       Advanced Rules for the Value Add Basketball Game
a.       Step A - The 3 components you need to play the game 
b.      Component 1 of 3 - Get These 4 Dice 
c.       Component 2 of 3 - Click on this score sheet image and print 
d.      Component 3 of 3 - Print Out 2 Teams to Play 
3.       The 96 great all-time teams
4.       Step B - Setting up the Game
a.       Set-up Step 1, determine the Dunk Range
b.      Set-up Step 1a - Advanced Rules on Dunk Range
                                                               i.      Dunk Range + - Def Adjust
                                                             ii.      Set-up Step 2, line up the starters
                                                            iii.      Tired Player Due to Playing More Possessions
5.       Direct Shots using only 20-side die for offensive rebounds or certain steals
6.       Step C - Rolling the Dice and Playing the Game
a.       1st - read the 8-sided die to see which player gets ball
                                                               i.      8-sided die determines who gets the ball (basic)
b.      Advanced: If the 8-sided die results in a roll of 6, 7 or 8
c.       2nd - Read the two 6-sided dice for 11-66 result
                                                               i.      41-46 Turnover. 
                                                             ii.      11-16 Steal - Basic
                                                            iii.      steal by a guard
                                                           iv.      21-26 Block - Basic
                                                             v.      31 - Steal
                                                           vi.      32 - Block
                                                          vii.      Steals (advanced rules)
                                                        viii.      Blocks (advanced rules)
7.       3rd - Read the 20-sided die
a.       3 pt - The player makes a 3-pt shot
b.      2 pt - The player makes a 2-pt shot
c.       Foul - The player gets two free throws
d.      Home Court (Advanced Rules) Bad Calls
e.      Adjusting Center's 3-pt made range pre-1987 teams:
f.        Go for Steal/Intentional Foul
g.       Try for 3-pointer. By calling "try for 3-pointer"
8.       Step 6 - Rebounding Chart
a.       Advanced Rule Adjustment for missed free throws:

b.      Explanation: Defenses rebound roughly two-thirds

Advanced Rules for the Value Add Basketball Game

The following are step-by-step instructions to play the free Value Add Basketball Game, including links to hundreds of teams from which to choose. Once you have read the instructions, everything you need to play the game is on the score sheet and player cards. Click here and here to see our results of an all-time March Madness, or on this Facebook video walking through the setup and start of a game if you are a visual learner. The video starts blurry the first couple of minutes while scanning the playing set up, but should be clear on your screen through most of it as I go through the cards and results based on die rolls.

Step A - The 3 components you need to play the game 

The following three items are needed to play the Value Add Basketball Game.

Component 1 of 3 - Get These 4 Dice 

The only purchase necessary to play the Value Add Basketball Game (VABG) is one 8-sided die (yellow in photo), two 6-sided die of different colors (in photo red is the "10" column and white is the "1" column for a roll of "32"), and a 20-sided die (green in photo).




Component 2 of 3 - Click on this score sheet image and print 

The score sheet below includes everything you need to play the game once you have read through the rules below once. Click it so it is on the screen, then print. You may want to print only the current page first in LANDSCAPE to make sure it works, and then play around with reducing to 70% or perhaps up to 100% to see how it looks (a full printing may cut off part of the rebound chart, but be easier to mark during a game. Once you like how a printout looks, go ahead and print several sheets - you will need one sheet every time you play a game.

Note, bolded numbers on the sheet show that all players start with 2 points. The two starting guards also start with 1 rebound and 1 steal, while the starting forwards and center start with 0 steals but 2 rebounds, and the starting center only starts with a blocked shot as well. All reserves start with just 2 points and 1 rebounds. If you have fewer than 5 reserves, you award 2 points and 1 rebound to a starter of your choice for every blank spot (e.g. if only 8 total players then 2 reserve spots are missing and you would add a total of 4 points and 2 rebounds to your choice of starters).


Component 3 of 3 - Print Out 2 Teams to Play 

Finally, you need to pick two teams to print and play a game. If you want to start by playing the two sample teams below, Kentucky 2012 and Kansas 2008, you can just print the first few pages of this blog and the starting five for each team are already lined up against each other. Generally the players position is the FIRST red number - so Kentucky's Marquis Teague and Kansas' Mario Chalmers both have a "1" (number before the "6" on their cards) and we face them against each other as competing point guards.

The players you put on the top are the point guards, then the next player you lay down (Doron Lamb and Russell Robinson in this sample game) are the "2" or shooting guard, etc., all the way down to the "5" or centers Terrence Jones and Darnell Jackson. The 1 to 5 numbers are just suggestions and you can put them in any order, but it is better to play players with higher steal ranges and lower rebounds as the guards at the top, and the reverse for the center at the bottom - where you would put someone with lower steals and higher rebounds.

Below these 5 cards for each team. We list links to let you click and print out player cards for any of 96 great teams, and there are even more options of additional teams available via this link, for all 2018 teams or other looks to the cards- however keep in mind the older versions still had some kinks to work out and are not as accurate as these 96 teams.




The 96 great all-time teams are broken down alphabetically into seven groups. Each group of teams - from Alabama's 1977 team to Duke's 2010 team and then alphabetical order down to the seventh group of teams -  UCLA's 1972 team to Wyoming's 1943 team, can be printed using one of two links. If you use google docs, you can click the first link by each range of teams to pull up PDFs of all the players for each of those teams. If you prefer not to access google docs, you can click on the second link which will go to a separate blog on www.pudnersports.com that you can print to have all the teams print with smaller cards.

Alabama 1977 to Duke 2010 - Google Doc Version  or just print this blog
Typo Note: The Auburn 2019 cards' adj. opp dunk range should be -1, incorrectly listed as -4

Florida 2006 to Iowa 2001 - Google Doc Version or just print this blog

Kansas 1957 to LSU 2006 Google Doc Version or just print this blog

Marquette 1977 to Notre Dame 1970 Google Doc Version or just print this blog

Ohio State 1960 to Purdue 2018 Google Doc Version or just print this blog

San Diego State 2011 to Texas Southern (UTEP) 1966 Google Doc Version or just print this blog

UCLA 1972 to Wyoming 1943 Google Doc Version or just print this blog

(note the last link includes UNC 1982, while "North Carolina" 2005 is in Marquette to Notre Dame link above)


As you print out additional teams, my suggestion for the cards is to print, cut (I did all 96 teams so cut each sheet into four cards with a paper cutter) and then place each team into a sandwich bag. This photo is of all 96 of my teams in alphabetical order. If you can print on card stock instead, or laminate, then you can use rubber bands instead of bags.




Step B - Setting up the Game

Once you have printed out the score sheet and player cards and have the four dice, you are ready to set up for a game. You can also review this video of setup: https://tinyurl.com/y6t4vdtp

Also, here is a post using one game as an example for deciding which player to use in which possessions to write up the score sheet.

Set-up Step 1, determine the Dunk Range (or No Score Range) for each team.

Further down we break down how to read the dice roll on each possession. One item we will cover is rolls of 51-66 on the two dice, on which you check to see if the result is a "dunk" for two points or if there is no result and you instead look at the 20-sided die to see if the player scores. Under the basic rule, if a "4" roll on the 8-sided die using the cards above told you that Anthony Davis received the ball, you would read his dunk range of 51-60, and the "adj opponent's dunk range" of -2 on the player who is defending him for Kansas (Darrell Arthur) and after making that subtraction you see that the "Davis vs. Arthur" dunk range is 60 minus 2 or an 11-58. On a roll of 51-56 Davis dunks (there is actually no roll of 57 or 58) and on a roll of 61-66 he does not and you instead look at his 20-sided die for the result. If you want to stick with this basic dunk rule then that is all you need and you can skip down to "Step 2" in the instructions.

Set-up Step 1a - Advanced Rules on Dunk Range (or No Score Range) 

If you are playing a whole team (as opposed to mixing players for an all-conference or other team) then every player on the team will have the same dunk range and adjust to dunk range and you can review the rest of this section to see how to record the dunk range (or no score range) for the entire team at the beginning of the game and write it as well as any adjustments to the steal or turnover range based on a dunk range of higher than 51-56 like Kentucky has against Kansas. 

Background note: The dunk range is important because it adjusts the expected points from the cards based on level of competition faced. For example, a player who had slightly better all around stats playing against a weaker conference like the SWAC than another player playing in the ACC would have slightly better numbers on his card overall due to weaker competition. However, the 51-66 dunk range is calibrated to adjust the performance reflected on the card to how well each player would perform if he faced the same level of competition of the other. In an extreme case, it is possible the player who faced much greater competition could have a dunk range of 51-66 so that one third of the time he scored immediately, while the player from the much weaker level of competition would have a "no score" range of 51-66 meaning he immediately failed to score and the player guarding him was simply credited with a defensive rebound.

Using the Kansas vs. Kentucky game as an example, both teams have a Dunk Range of 51-60 on their player cards. That number is always adjusted by the opponent's dunk adj. range just below that spot on the card.

While the first number in all team's dunk range is always 51-, we subtract Kansas' defensive adjustment from Kentucky's offensive 51-60 to leave Kentucky with a 51-58 dunk range. Because Kentucky has a slightly better -3, Kansas' adjusted dunk range is one lower at 51-57.

To use the basic rules you can stop reading this section right with this sentence and skip down to "Setup Step 2..." When the offensive player has the ball his dunk range is that range minus the defender's adjustment range - in this case it would actually be a 51-56 for all players in the game (dice rolls explained further down) since this refers to the roll of two 6-sided dice so there is really no roll of 57 or 58.

If you want to play Advanced Rules, the rest of this section shows you how to account for every possible range once before the game.

The chart below shows other adjustments made based on the dunk range that is calculated. The highest possible dunk range is 51-66, which appears at the top of the chart. A team that calculates an 51-66 not only dunks on all those roles,but the opponent's steals are reduced by 2 each (so an 11-14 steal range becomes only 11-12) and the offensive team's turnover ranges are also dropped by 2 each (so a 41-43 turnover range becomes just one roll - a 41-41.). However, please note that the steals and turnovers cannot be reduced below one possible roll, so each defender would still need to have at least an 11 for a steal, while each offensive player would still turn the ball over on at least a 41.

If you go down this chart for our sample game, we bold both Kentucky's 51-58 range, where the table shows they dunk on 51-56, but also that Kansas defenders' steal ranges are all dropped by 1, and Kentucky's turnover ranges are all dropped by 1 as well. Kansas is just one lower at 51-57, meaning they have the same 51-56 dunk range and the lower Kentucky's steal ranges by one, HOWEVER the Kansas turnover ranges are not lowered with the 57. See the ranges on the table, and then we will continue to review the results for lower dunk ranges below the table:

Dunk Range + - Def Adjust50s and 60s ResultChanges to Team's or Opponents Stl/TO
51 - 6651 - 66 dunk-2 Opp Steals, -2 Team's Turnovers
51 - 6551 - 65 dunk-2 Opp Steals, -2 Team's Turnovers
51 - 6451 - 64 dunk-2 Opp Steals, -2 Team's Turnovers
51 - 6351 - 63 dunk-2 Opp Steals, -2 Team's Turnovers
51 - 6251 - 62 dunk-2 Opp Steals, -2 Team's Turnovers
51 - 6151 - 61 dunk-2 Opp Steals, -2 Team's Turnovers
51 - 6051 - 56 dunk-2 Opp Steals, -2 Team's Turnovers
51 - 5951 - 56 dunk-2 Opp Steals, -1 Team's Turnovers
51 - 5851 - 56 dunk-1 Opp Steals, -1 Team's Turnovers
51 - 5751 - 56 dunk-1 Opp Steals
51 - 5651 - 56 dunkNo other changes
51 - 5551 - 55 dunkNo other changes
51 - 5451 - 54 dunkNo other changes
51 - 5351 - 53 dunkNo other changes
51 - 5251 - 52 dunkNo other changes
51 - 5151 - 51 dunkNo other changes
51 - 50No Dunk or MissNo other changes
51 - 4951 - 51 miss, def rebNo other changes
51 - 4851 - 52 miss, def rebNo other changes
51 - 4751 - 53 miss, def rebNo other changes
51 - 4651 - 54 miss, def rebNo other changes
51 - 4551 - 55 miss, def rebNo other changes
51 - 4451 - 56 miss, def rebNo other changes
51 - 4351 - 56 miss, def reb-1 Opp Steals
51 - 4251 - 56 miss, def reb+1 Opp Steals, +1 Team's Turnovers
51 - 4151 - 56 miss, def reb+2 Opp Steals, +1 Team's Turnovers
51 - 4051 - 56 miss, def reb+2 Opp Steals, +2 Team's Turnovers
51 - 3951 - 61 miss, def reb+2 Opp Steals, +2 Team's Turnovers
51 - 3851 - 62 miss, def reb+2 Opp Steals, +2 Team's Turnovers
51 - 3751 - 63 miss, def reb+2 Opp Steals, +2 Team's Turnovers
51 - 3651 - 64 miss, def reb+2 Opp Steals, +2 Team's Turnovers
51 - 3551 - 65 miss, def reb+2 Opp Steals, +2 Team's Turnovers
51 - 3451 - 66 miss, def reb+2 Opp Steals, +2 Team's Turnovers

51-50. Nothing happens on rolls of 51-66 - just play the other three dice.

51-49 or lower. A weak offense against a strong defense could result in a range below 51. In that case, use the middle column to determine a range of times in which the team would NOT score. For example, if the same Team A with a 51-55 range played the 1977 Marquette team, which has a great defense and adj dunk range of -11, then subtracting 11 from that 11-55 range would leave the team with a 11-44 range in the left column, which translates in the middle column to NOT SCORING on rolls of 51-56. In those cases, record zero points for the trip, the player who received the ball due to the 8-sided die misses a shot with the player guarding him getting the rebound on a 1-5, or turns the ball over on a 6,7 or 8.

Optional: If both teams have positive dunk ranges, you can decrease both by the same amount. For example, in our sample game rather than keep track of lower steal and turnover ranges, you could lower Kansas dunk range to 51-55, and Kentucky's 51-56 so there is still one difference and there is no adjustment on turnovers or dunks.

Once the dunk ranges are determined against the chart above, write the dunk ranges (or NO SCORE ranges) as well as any turnover or steal adjustments at the top of the score sheet.

Set-up Step 2, line up the starters by position and reserves


While you may want to simply play a sample game using only the five starters for Kansas and Kentucky above, once you print out the entire teams you can put them in a different order and determine how much you will play each reserve.

Layout starters: Pick your 5 starters and put them in order from point guard through center and write them in the top 5 spots on the score sheet. To play with basic rules, lay the reserve players on top of the starters and play the reserves for the first seven possessions- marked 44, 43, 42, 41, 40, 39 and 38 on the score sheet - and then on the possession that shows "37" on the score sheet discard the reserves and play the starters for the last 37 possessions of the game. If a team has fewer than 10 players, then at least one of the starters will not have a reserve on top of him at the beginning of the game, and therefore will play all 44 possessions.  If playing a team from several decades ago before minutes were recording, you can only play the basic game because we do not know how many possessions each player played and thus every starters' cards says he can play "37 of 44 possessions" and each reserves card says he can play "7 of 44 possessions."

If playing the basic rules for rotations, you can skip down to "direct shots on 20-sided die" below.

Advanced Rules for rotation - which players play which positions.

Note how many possessions they can play without getting tired, and the easiest way we do this is to actually start reserves and only bring the starters into the game when they can play the remainder of the game (e.g. a player who can play "35 of 44 possessions" can sit out possession 44-36, and then play the final 35 possessions, 35-1).

Note that the game assumes all players, starters and reserves have played about 11 possessions each in the first 22 possessions resulted in the 20-20 tie in each game on the score sheet before you start rolling dice and recording. So the average starter over time has averaged 48 of 66 possessions, so assuming he already played 11 possessions leading to the 20-20 tie then he has 37 possessions left of the final 44. Likewise the average reserve plays 18 of 66 possessions, so since we assume 11 already played in the first 22 to get to a 20-20 tie, he is left with just 7 more.

Suggested positions are not required: The number(s) in the lower corner left corner gives the suggested position (1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 for every player) but you can play any player at any position.

Suggest stacking players by position: Put reserve players on top of the starters, but by each starter on the score sheet the possessions he cold play based on the "can play ___ possessions" - so if that number is "42" then write 42-1 by him to show he can play from the 42nd possession through the end of the game without getting tired. Write the possessions you plan to use each player to the side of the player (e.g. 44-39 might be a reserve and then 38-31 for the starter who will come in for him). In other cases you may want one reserve moving from one position to another, so a starter might play the 44-39 possession, then sit out 7 positions for a reserve moving for another position, then come back for the 31-1 possession.

Tired Player Due to Playing More Possessions than Card Allows. If a player plays more than his listed number of possessions then he is tired and change all dice rolls by one against them. So increase each 20 sided roll by 1 for the tired player shooting the ball or shooting a free throw. On the 11-66 roll for the tired player also adjust each roll by one against him, so a player who would steal the ball on 11-14 now only does on 11-13, and if he would block on 11-15 he only does on 11-14, and if he fouls on 35-36 then he now fouls on 34-36, and if he normally turns in over on 41-43, then when tired he turns it over on 41-44. There is no adjustment in the dunk range for a tired player though.

But don't forget it is fine to just use a simple rotation with all reserves playing 44-38 possessions on the score sheet then all starters play 37-1.

Strategy tip: It is better to have the higher rebound ranges (1-6 or higher if possible) toward the bottom, center position. For every 3 times you center's rebound range determines who gets the rebound, each guard's rebound range is used only 1 time, and each forward only 2 times. On the flip side, the higher steal ranges help more toward the top, because the two guards can start a fast break on any steal, while the two forwards can start one on an odd numbered steal (an 11, 13, 15 or 31) and the center can never fast break on a steal. However, you should always have a player with a "1" on his card playing the top spot as point guard - otherwise n oone gets the ball on an 8-sided roll of 6, 7 or 8.

Here is an example using Kawhi Leonard's San Diego State team.



For San Diego State 2011 DJ Gay is the point guard (1) where his 11 to 14 steals give 4 chances for a steal and fast break at the other end and his Chase Tapley is the shooting guard (2) where his 11 to 16 in steals gives 6 chances of 36 for a fast break in a steak when the opponent's rolls a 2 on the 8-sided die to put him on defense (a 1 on that die means DJ Gay is on defense and can steal). Having them in the two guard spots also minimizes their poor rebounding because the chance of the rebound coming to their range is only 1 in 20 on the rebound chart (if San Diego misses a shot only a "9" on the 20-sided die comes to the "1" where DJ's 1 to 0 range means it always goes to the defender against him while only a "8" goes to the "2" where Tapley's 1 to 1 offensive rebound goes to him and 2 to 6 goes.to the other SG. Both have a slightly better chance of 1 to 2 out of 6 on defense if the roll is 19 or 18 when the opponent's miss.

Also note that on opposing 8-side rolls the steal and block ranges are cut in half (round up) so Gay is just an 11 to 12 and Tapley is just an 11 to 13, BUT on those rolls any defender can steal (or block) so even if an 8 roll pointed to the opposing center Tapley could steal on a roll as high as 13 if his teammate center did not go that high.

The one other consideration with putting players further up top at the 1 or 2 is that if they have extra numbers (6, 7 and or 8) the top player gets the 6, the next player down the 7 etc

On the front line Kawhi Leonard shows a "5 and 8" since he is the best rebounder, but in looking at his card we choose to flip him to the "4" and Malcolm Thomas to the "5."

While this would be more realistic if you watched the team anyway, the card strategy makes sense because forwards can fast break on odd numbers so the 11-15 range for both Kawhi and Billy White mean that either of them can fast break in an 11, 13 or 15, and if Kawhi were at center none of those would be fast breaks so those would be wasted opportunities. Malcolm Thomas is almost as great a rebounder as Kawhi (both are 1 to 6 on offense, while Thomas give up only a "6" rebound since he is 1 to 5 while Kawhi is a 1 to 7 which means he not only gets all his chances but can usually get all rebounds on a rebound roll of 10 or 20 where the high on the court gets it - unless a 1 to 10 like Wilt Chamberlain is in the court.

Note that Thomas 21 to 26 block range also indicates on 8-sided rolls 6, 7 or 8 he can block a shot of any opponent if the 11-36 roll is 21 to 23 and his teammate guarding the shooter is not high enough.

So in summary, for the two guards rebound ranges are less important and steal ranges are more important.

For the center the reverse is true - he gets three times as many chances for rebounds as the two guards (1-3 on offense and 11-13 on defense for the 20-sided die).

The forwards are a balance.if the two, so Kawhi is the perfect forward because he is awesome at both.

The fast break steal and the offensive rebound are the only two times the player who gets the ball simply rolls the 20-sided die only to get off either a shot or get fouled without the chance of a turnover so the right strategy maximizes these changes.



Direct Shots using only 20-side die for offensive rebounds or certain steals


  1. If either guard steals the ball, he can roll just the 20-sided die to see if he scores or draws a foul at the other end without risk of a turnover. Any fast break on a steal in the last 9 possessions of the game (final of 4 columns on the score sheet) then each team gets two chances to score during that possession. Therefore while the game is set up to go 66 possessions, the possessions could go as high as 75 possessions if one team or the other stole it for a fast break chance on each of the 9 possessions.
  2. If either forward steals the ball on an odd number (11, 13, 15 or 31) then they can try a fast break. A center can never try to fast break on a steal.
  3. If any player grabs an offensive rebound, you can roll only the 20-sided die again and use their card to see if they score or draw a foul. If they miss a shot, and an offensive player gets the next rebound as well, then repeat until the team scores or is fouled or the defense gets a rebound.
Note that in occurances one through three above a team should normally use the option to just roll the 20-sided die, however there are exceptions. If the player getting the offensive rebound or the steal with the option to fast break has a very poor offensive card, perhaps 10 to 20 or worse on the 20-sided die is a missed shot - you can choose to roll all the dice again instead in hopes the ball is not turned over and you get it to a better offensive player. Also if a team gets the fast break option in the final 9 possessions, they can choose to roll all the dice to walk the ball down the court for a normal possession if they have a lead of more than a couple of points so want the game to end quicker while they are still ahead. Using the fast break option in the final 9 possessions creates and extra possession for both teams, which you may not want with the lead.

Stats recorded before the first dice rolls: Actual games take close to 70 possessions, so for purposes of the game it is assumed all players split the early possessions evenly to result in a 20-20 tie with 44 possessions remaining to be played in the game. The cards are calibrated based on the results each player should get in 44 possessions assuming everyone was average on the other possessions of the game. Playing 44 possessions keeps the time required to play a game about 35 minutes once the first dice are rolled.

Player stats:At the beginning of the game, every player - starter and reserve - starts with 2 points, 1 rebound and 1 foul.

If a team has only 9 players then the player with the highest PPG starts with 4 points instead of 2. If a team has only 8 players, then the player with the 2nd highest PPG also starts with 4 points. If a team has only 7 players, then the player with the 3rd highest PPG starts with 4 points instead of 2. IF YOU DECIDE TO ONLY PLAY 5 STARTERS FOR EACH TEAM FOR THE WHOLE GAME, THEN EACH PLAYER STARTS WITH 4 POINTS. In every case, a team starts the game with 20 total points.

PG & SG 1 Steal: The top 2 starters on the scoresheet (point guard and shooting guard at the "1" and "2" position) both start with 1 steal. No other player starts with a steal.

Front line 2 Rebounds: The 3 starters listed in the 3rd through 5th spot on the score sheet (the "3" through the "5") start with 2 rebounds instead of 1.

Center 1 Block: The 5th starter - the center or "5" also starts with one blocked shot.


Step C - Rolling the Dice and Playing the Game

All four dice are rolled at the same time for each team possession, however they are read in this order.

1st - read the 8-sided die to see which player gets ball





8-sided die determines who gets the ball (basic)
1The player you put on the top of the 5 players in the game (the point guard) gets the ball. (e.g. Kentucky above, Marquis Teague, defended by Kansas' Russell Robinson)

2The player you put second from the top of the 5 players gets (the sooting guard) gets the ball. (e.g. Kentucky above Doron Lamb, guarded by Russell Robinson)

3The player you put in the middle of the five players in game (swing or small forward) gets the ball. (Kentucky above Michael Kidd-Gilchrist, guarded by Kansas' Brandon Rush)

4The player you put next to the bottom of five players in the game (forward or powerforward) gets the ball. (Kentucky above Terrance Jones, defended by Kansas' Darnell Jackson)

5The player you put on the bottom of the 5 players in the game (the center or biggest forward) gets the ball. (e.g. Kentucky above Anthony Davis, guarded by Kansas' Darnell Arthur)


While every player has a 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5, only players who have an extra number - usually a 7 but sometimes a 6&8 - can get the ball on a roll of 6, 7 or 8.
6Starting with the top player, point guard, the first player with a 6, 7 and/or 8 in the lower left hand corner of the card gets the ball if the 8-sided die roll is an 8.
Example: For Kentucky above, the 1st player Marquis Teague does have a 7 (1&7) and so he gets the ball on a roll of 6. For Kansas above, the first player Russell Robinson does ONLY has a "1" and therefore cannot get the ball on a 6, 7 or 8, but the next player Mario Chalmers does (1&7) so he gets the ball when Kansas rolls a 6 on the 8-sided dies.

7The second player with a 6, 7 and/or 8 gets the ball on a roll of 7.
Example: For Kentucky, Teague would have the ball on a roll of "6" (see above) and the next player Lamb does not have a 6, 7 and/or 8, so a roll of "7" goes to the next player with an extra number, Michael Kidd-Gilchrist (4&7). For Kansas, Chalmers gets the ball on a "6" (see above), and the next player below him Brandon Rush also has an extra number (1&7), therefore he gets the ball when Kansas rolls a "7".

8The third player with a 6, 7 and/or 8 going from top to bottom gets the ball on a roll of "8."
Example: In the case of Kentucky the next player after Teague and Kidd-Gilchrist with an extra number is the 4th player, Terrance Jones (5&7) so he gets the ball on a roll of 8. For Kansas, with Chalmers and Rush getting the ball on a 6 and 7, the 4th player Darnell Johnson also has an extra number (5&7) so he gets the ball on a roll of "8".

In the basic rules, whoever gets the ball on a roll of 6, 7 or 8 is guarded by the same player who would guard him on a roll of 1-5.

Advanced: If the 8-sided die results in a roll of 6, 7 or 8 these rules make for a more accurate game.


6&8 on Card. If any player on the team has both a 6 & 8 on his card instead of just a 7, then he gets not only the first number that comes to him but the second if available. A player could get both the 6 and the 7 roll, or the 7 and the 8 roll, but if the 6 & 7 number are already taken by players above him, then he would get only the 8.


Roll of "20" Shot. If a player who does have a 6, 7 and/or 8 in the lower left hand corner of the card but does NOT get to use his number or both his numbers because players above him claim the ball on those rolls, then when he does get the ball a roll of "20" on his die score it as a 2-point shot made instead of a miss.

Example: Both Anthony Davis and Darnell Arthur in the Kentucky vs. Kansas game above have a "5&7" in the lower left hand corner but because players above them use the 6, 7 and 8 they both only get the ball if the 8-sided die is a "5." However, a roll of 5 on the 8-sided die and roll of 20 on the 20-sided die results in a 2-point shot made instead of missed unless something stopped the ball on the 11=66 roll (see below).


If no player has 6, 7 and/or 8. If for any reason the result of a roll of 6, 7 or 8 results in noone getting the ball, then all dice are rolled again with only 10 seconds left on the shot clock and if a second roll does not result in a 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 then the team turns the ball over on a shot clock violation.


No Point Guard in Game. If the top player of the 5 does not have "0" or "1" as one of his possible positions in the bottom left of his card, then you are playing without a true point guard, and ignore the result of a 6,7 or 8 roll above and instead roll all three dice again and there are only 10 seconds left on the shot clock.


Reduce all steal and block ranges in half if 8-sided die is 6, 7 or 8 BUT any player can make the steal or block. Unlike the scenario above in the basic rules where the corresponding player is always on defense, in advanced rules the defender might be another player. If the 8-sided die is a 6, 7 or 8 then cut every defenders block and steal range in half (but round up, so 11-15 steal is just 11-13). However, any defender can block or steal from any player on a 6, 7 or 8 roll.

For example, if  a 3 for Kansas gave the small forward, Rush, the ball and the two sided dice were a 25, then Doron could not block the shot because his block range is 21-23. However, a roll of "6" on the 8-sided die would also give Rush the ball and because the roll is a 6, 7 or 8 all defender's blocked shot range would be cut in half but any of them could try to block the shot. Anthony Davis block range is 21 to 31, so it is cut from 11 numbers to 6 numbers - a 21-26 - and he can block Rush or any other Kansas player getting the ball on a 6, 7 or 8 regardless of who he is guarding.

2nd - Read the two 6-sided dice for 11-66 result

Once you determine which player has the ball based on the 8-sided die, look at the two 6-sided dice to get a reading of 11-66 and find it in a range below (we list higher numbers first, then go back to 11-36.



41-46 Turnover. Look at the middle column on the players card who received the ball on the roll of 1-8. If the roll is within the Turnover range on his card, then he turns the ball over, his team gets 0 points on the possession, and the other team has the ball.

Example: A "41" is a turnover for almost every player, however Anthony Davis turned the ball over so rarely that his range is 41-40, meaning he will not turn over the ball on any roll of 41-46. It is possible for him to have a turnover if his defender has a steal (below).

51-66 Dunk. Look at the dunk range of the player with the ball, and then subtract or add the opponent defenders "adj opp dunk/layup" number. As noted in the game setup, the whole team will have the same range. For example, if the offensive player/team has a 51-54 and the defender is a plus 2, then the new range is 51-56. If the roll is within the range plus or minus the defender, then the player gets by the defender to dunk the ball for 2 points UNLESS the 20-sided die results in a 3-pt made.

11-16 Steal - Basic: check the Steal Range of the defender across from the player with the ball, and if the roll is in his steal range then he steals the ball.

Advanced Steal. If the 8-sided die was a 6, 7 or 8 then cut all defenders' steal range in half (round up so 11-11 or 11-12 becomes 11-12, 11-13 or 11-14 becomes 11-12, etc). However, if the defender guarding the player does not get a steal but one of the other 4 defenders can steal the ball if his range - also cut in half - would be a steal. If it is not within any defenders range cut in half then there is no steal.
2nd Advanced Steal Rule. In certain cases a team can "fast break" after a steal. If this happens, only the 20-sided die is rolled and used for the player who stole the ball to see if he scores or is fouled. In addition, if this happens in the last 5 possessions of the game and the team who stole the ball and attempted the fast break is trailing, they can choose to give both teams an extra possession to have more time to catch-up. In this case both teams would roll twice on the NEXT possession (or if on the last possession - 1 - both would roll on the 1a optional possession without the trailing team needing to foul intentionally.) This fast break option is only available if:

  • steal by a guard (see below a player with an 11-20 or higher steal number steals the ball from anyone on the court on a roll of 31).
  • 11, 13, 15 or 31 results in steal by a forward (next 2 in stack) steals the ball on a 13 or 15.
  • A center can never start a fast break with a steal in the game.



Example. If Michael Kidd-Gilchrist gets the ball on an 8-sided die roll of "7" and the steal roll is 15, then first check Brandon Rush's steal range and because the roll was after an 8-sided roll of 6, 7 or 8, that range is cut in half to 11-13 and Rush does not steal the ball. However, in checking the other 4 players Mario Chalmers' 11-20 range is cut in half to 11-15 and he steals the ball instead. Note that if Kidd-Gilchrist instead received the ball on a roll of "3" the Rush's steal range would have still been the normal 11-15 so he would have the steal.

21-26 Block - Basic: check the Block Range of the defender across from the player with the ball to see if he blocks the shot - which is treated as a missed shot.

Advanced: As with the steal, if the roll of 21-26 occurs after a roll of 6, 7 or 8 then cut the block range in half but round up (21-22 becomes 21-21, 23-24 becomes 21-22 etc.). However, if the defender cannot block the shot but some other player on the court can block the shot using half his block range, then he blocks the shot.

Example: If Mario Chalmers gets the ball on a "7" roll on the 8-sided die and the two 6-sided dice total is 26, then you first look at the defender Doron Lamb's block range of 21-21 which cut in half is still 21-21 and not nearly enough to block the shot. However, because the 6-sided die was in the 6-8 range, you check other players and see that Anthony Davis block range is normally 21-31 - meaning even cut in half it becomes a 21-26 and he blocks Chalmer's shot.

31 - Steal. This is a steal if any defender on the court has a steal range of 11-20 or higher (e.g. Mario Chalmers).

32 - Block. This is a block if any defender on the court has a block range of 21-30 or higher (E.g. Anthony Davis).

Steals (advanced rules)

If a player has a steal range of higher than 11-16 after any adjustments, then he can steal the ball on rolls of 16 or sometimes 31 when certain other players are on defense:

  1. Steal 11-17 Also steals on 16 for bottom of 4 other players 
  2. Steal 11-18 Also steals on 16 for bottom TWO of other 4 players 
  3. Steal 11-19 Also steals on 16 for bottom THREE of other 4 players 
  4. Steal 11-20 Steals on a roll of 31 for any player 
  5. Steal 11-21 Steals on all rolls of 31 PLUS 16 for bottom of 4 players 
  6. Steal 11-22 Steals on all rolls of 31 PLUS 16 for bottom 2 of 4 players Blocks

Blocks (advanced rules)

If a player has a block range of higher than 21-26, then he can steal the ball on rolls of 26 or sometimes 32 when certain other players are on defense:




  1. Block 21-27 Also blocks on 26 for top of 4 other players 
  2. Block 21-28 Also blocks on 26 for top TWO of other 4 players 
  3. Block 21-29 Also blocks on 26 for top THREE of other 4 players 
  4. Block 21-30 Also blocks on roll of 32 for any player 
  5. Block 21-31 Blocks on all rolls of 32 PLUS 26 for top of 4 players 
  6. Block 31-32 Blocks on all rolls of 32 PLUS 26 for top TWO of 4


33 - 36 possible Foul.
If the roll of 33-36 on the defender's card is a foul, then he commits a foul and check the 20-sided die to see if it is a 3-point shot made or misses, a 2-point shot made or missed, or simply a foul on that roll as well which is a one-and-one free throw on possessions 33 to 11 or two shots on any other possession.



3rd - Read the 20-sided die

If nothing happens on the roll of 11-66, or if it results in a foul, then read the 20-sided die for one of the results below.


If the result of any roll of 11-66 does NOT result in a steal, block, foul, turnover or dunk, then proceed to read the 20-sided die and look at the right column of hte offensive player's card with the ball.

3 pt - The player makes a 3-pt shot (if the 33-36 resulted in a foul, he also gets one free throw for a chance at a 4-pt play).

Advanced rule: almost all player cards from the mid 1980s and earlier were for players who did not play in games with a 3-point line, and others played with 3-point lines at various distances (click for history). For those players the cards are all based on one-fifth of their made shots being from behind a 3-point line. An advanced rule adjustment is to make all shots by the team's center 2-pointers, but redistribute his 3-pointers by adding to the ranges of other players following the lines below:
On "5" roll on 8-sided die, count all 3-pt made as 2-pt made, and:
3-pt made was 1-1, add one 3-pt made if 8-sided die roll was "2" roll (shooting guard)
3-pt made was 1-2, add one 3-pt made on "1" or "2" roll to PG or SG.
3-pt made was 1-3 or higher, and two 3-pt made on "2" to SG and add one on "1" to PG.
If the center also gets the ball on an extra 8-sided roll (7 or 8) then add a 3ptM number to whoever gets the ball on an 8-sided die roll of "6."


2 pt - The player makes a 2-pt shot (if the 33-36 resulted in a foul, he also gets one free throw for a chance at a 3-pt play).

Foul - The player gets two free throws UNLESS the result of a 33-36 was also a foul AND it is the 33rd through 10th possession remaining in the game.

3 pt missed - The player misses a 3-pt shot, BUT if a 33-36 roll resulted in a foul then he gets 3 shots.

2 pt missed - The player misses a 2-pt shot, BUT if a 33-36 roll resulted in a foul then he gets 2 shots.

Foul Shots - Roll the 20-sided die only for foul shots and refer to the range in the "free throw" range in the bottom right of the players cards to see if the free throw is made or missed.

Home Court (Advanced Rules) Bad Calls Against Road Team

Tournament games can be considered to be played at a neutral court. However, to play a season with one team at home, the following adjustment is made to the "Foul" range. If nothing happens based on the two 6-sided dice (11-66) roll and it comes to the 20-sided die, then each home player loses one number in the Foul range in which he is fouled and each visiting players loses a number that turns into a turnover.  For example, in the sample cards at the top Anthony Davis has a foul range of 10 to 14. If Kentucky is the visiting team playing at Kansas, so Davis is only fouled on a 10 to 13 but a roll of 14 is a turnover on which the ref missed the foul and Kansas gets the ball. If Kentucky was the home team then Davis' range is now 10 to 15 to draw a foul and get two shots because on a "15" roll in Kentucky the ref called a foul in error.


Background: College referees get calls correct an incredibly high percentage of time, but the indication is that the difference in home advantage is that the home team gets 1 or 2 "home" foul calls than they would on a neutral court, while the road team gets 1 to 2 "missed" calls on which they should have received a foul call on the home team but did not. Add it together the home team will average taking three more free throws that they would have gotten on a neutral court, and since players average making around 67 percent of free throws they score 2 more points than they would on the neutral court. On the flip side, the visiting team averages getting 3 free throws fewer than they would have been able to take on a neutral court so they score 2 points fewer than they would on a neutral court, so a 4-point average advantage for the home team.

3-point shots made for teams prior to 1987 (Advanced)

First, because almost no players had a 3-point line before 1987, each player card is calculated based on one of their five shots made being behind the line. You can just play the card as-is in basic rules, however, the Advance Rule calls for the player in the center to never make a 3-pointer (his 3-points made and attempted are just changed to 2-pointers) but those 3-point made shot are transferred to teammates.

Adjusting Center's 3-pt made range pre-1987 teams:

Look at the Center's 3-pt made range AND if he gets the ball on just a "5" or if he gets it on two numbers (e.g. 5 & 8) or three numbers (e.g. 5 6&8) like Bill Walton. Then use this chart to determine who gets an extra 3-point made.  In Bill Walton's case he gets the ball on a "5 6 or 8" and his 3-point range made is 1-2, so if you look down the chart there is a "1" in each column meaning that every teammate gets to add one to their 3-pt made range (so if their range was 1-2, we change the 3 from a 2-point made to a 3-point made).

However, if a center only got the ball on an 8-sided die roll of "5" and his 3-pt made range was only 1-1 (the first column) then you would only add a 3-point made if it was after an 8-sided roll of "2" for the shooting guard. The next two rows show scenarios where both a "1" and "2" roll would give and extra 3-pt made after either an 8-sided roll of "1" or "2" - the point guard or shooting guard.


8-sided diemade 3-ptPG1SG2SF3PF46 to 8
51-101000
5 81-111000
51-211000
5 6 81-111100
5 81-211100
51-311100
5 6 81-211111
5 81-311111
5 6 81-311111


Step 5 - Optional Use of Advanced Strategies



Go for Steal/Intentional Foul on extra possessions before possession 2 and 1. The possessions above Possessions 2 and 1 are skipped UNLESS one of the two teams decides to foul. If EITHER team decides to foul they must announce it after the "3" possession, and both teams get an extra roll for the 2a box. Likewise if either team announces a foul BEFORE either roll for the final "1" possession, then use the 1a possession on that roll for each team.  If intentionally fouling on 2a or 1a (or either or both) do not use the 20-sided die.

If the 8-sided die is a 1-5 then only that player can attempt to steal the ball - and if his 11-16 range (or on a 31 if any player has an 11-20 steal range or higher) then the ball is stolen.



On 2a or 1a the defense gets the rebound. Play possessions 2 and 1 normally whether or not the team behind calls for the foul to cause 2a and 1a to be played.


If the 8-sided die roll is a 6, 7 or 8, then the defender with the highest steal range attempts to make the steal. If the defender is higher than 11-16 then increase his range by 4, so an 11-17 becomes 11-21, 11-18 becomes 11-22 etc.

If the 11-66 roll results in a turnover on the offensive player's card, then score as a turnover.

If the 11-66 range is anything besides a steal or turnover under the scenarios above, then the play is a 2-shot foul.

Try for 3-pointer. By calling "try for 3-pointer" before a roll, each players 3 point made range can be increased by 1 for every 2 pointer that is taken away within certain paramaters. For example, a 3 point range was 1-5 and 2 point range was 6-10, the three point range could be increased to 1-7 by changing a roll of 9 or 10 into a miss with the defense getting the rebound.

The three point range can never be more than doubled, so a three point range of 1-1 and 2 point made of 2-10 can only be changed to a 1-2 three pointer made and a 3-9 two pointer still made while a 10 is a miss and defense gets the rebound.

A 1-0 three point range can still not make any 3 pointers.


Not fouling. If a team declares that one or more player is "avoiding a foul" then any rolls of 31-36 when the player is guarding has the ball is scored as a 2-point layup, but none are a foul.

New substitutions can be made late in the game to add players with a higher steal range, or with a higher 3-point range.
Advice: The intentional foul on 1a and 2a or the attempt 3-pointers should not be used unless a team is trailing and needs it to have a chance. By doing this you are giving away twice as many points as you are adding on average (e.g. changed two 2 pointers from 2 to 3 points adds only 2 points for every 20 rolls while tuning the two 2 pointers to 0 costs 4 points for every 20 rolls.

Step 6 - Rebounding Chart

We have now added the rebounding chart to the bottom right of the score sheet, but we also break it out here. As discussed above, five player cards for each team are laid from top to bottom. If a shot or free throw is missed on even numbered possessions (44, 42, 40 ... 2) and the last possession (1) roll 2 dice again. The 20-sided die is rolled to determine the position below with a chance at the rebound. 

1-9 on 20-sided gives offense 1st chance at rebound / 11-19 gives defense 1st chance

1 = Check Off Center (in 5 slot) Off Reb Range / ... if 11 check Def Center /Def Reb Range

2 = Check Off Center (in 5 slot) Off Reb Range / ... if 12 check Def Center /Def Reb Range

3 = Check Off Center (in 5 slot) Off Reb Range / ... if 13 check Def Center /Def Reb Range

4 = Check Off PF (in 4 slot) Off Reb Range / ... if 14 check Def PF /Def Reb Range

5 = Check Off PF (in 4 slot) Off Reb Range / ... if 15 check Def PF /Def Reb Range

6 = Check Off SF (in 4 slot) Off Reb Range / ... if 16 check Def SF /Def Reb Range

7 = Check Off SF (in 4 slot) Off Reb Range / ... if 17 check Def SF /Def Reb Range

8 = Check Off SG (in 2 slot) Off Reb Range / ... if 18 check Def SG /Def Reb Range

9 = Check Off PG (in 1 slot) Off Reb Range / ... if 19 check Def PG /Def Reb Range

10 or 20 = Highest on Court. Check Off Reb Range / of all offensive players and /Def Reb Range of all defenders, highest on court gets rebound with tie going to offensive player.

Once determining the player from the 20-sided die, if the 1-6 roll is in his range then he gets the rebound. If not, the opposing player at the same position gets the rebound, except on rolls of 10 or 20 on which the 6-sided die is disregarded. 

If an offensive player gets the rebound, then roll the 20-sided die only and read that players result in the right column to see if he scores, is fouled or misses. If he misses the shot, repeat the rebounding chart roll of the 20-sided and 6-sided dice until the offense scores or the defense grabs a rebound.

On the odd numbered possessions except for the final (1) possession the defense gets the rebound. The score sheet lists which defender gets the rebound by each possession, but here is the breakdown:
  • Defensive center (bottom of five players in game) rebounds if a shot is missed on possession 43, 33, 23, 13 or 3 (C)
  • Def. Power Forward (next to bottom of five players) rebounds a missed shot on possession 41, 31, 21 or 11 (PF)
  • Defender with highest defensive rebound range rebounds on possession 39, 29, 19 or 9
  • Def. Small Forward (middle of five players) rebounds a missed shot on possession 37, 27,17 or 7 (SF)
  • Def. Shooting Guard (2nd from top player in game) rebounds a missed shot on possession 35 or 15 (SG)
  • Def. Point Guard (top of five players in game) rebounds a missed shot on possession 25 or 5 (PG)


Example: Using the cards below, if Kansas missed a shot on an even numbered possession, and a roll of 12 occured on the 20-sided die it would say to check the Def Center, who is the 5th player below under Kentucky, Anthony Davis. If the 6-sided die resulted in a "5" then Davis would get the rebound because his Def Reb 1-6 indicates he gets the rebound anytime he has the chance. However, if the same roll resulted after Kentucky missed a shot, then the rebound would go to Kansas' defensive center, Darnell Arthur, but since his Def Reb range is 1-4 the "5" would mean he did NOT get the rebound and instead Anthony Davis would get an offensive rebound.

    Rolls of 10 or 20 are the only times you ignore the 6-sided die and look for the best rebounder on the court. If Kentucky missed a shot a 10 or 20 would give an offensive rebound to Davis because his Off Reb 1-6 is better than any other Kentucky player's Off Reb range and better than any Kansas player's defensive rebound range. However, a 10 or 20 after a Kansas miss would go to Darnell Arther because his Offensive Rebound range is higher at 1-6, and just as high as Anthony Davis' defensive range of 1-6 and higher than anyone else on the court - and ties go to the offensvie team on rolls of 10 or 20.

Advanced Rule Adjustment for missed free throws:

  • If chart indicates Offensive Point Guard gets rebound, change to Defensive Center rebound.
  • If chart indicates Offensive Shooting Guard gets rebound, change to Defensive Power Forward.
  • If chart indicates Offensive Small Forward gets rebound, change to Defensive Shooting Forward BUT Offensive Small Forward can get rebound IF his teammate Center or Power Forward missed free throw.

Explanation: Defenses rebound roughly two-thirds of all missed shots. In VABG the defense gets the rebound on almost half - 21 of 44 possessions - automatically. However, on the other possessions the VAGB cards are calibrated to give the offense almost 60% of all rebounds and they can get more than one rebound on each possession, the offense will average about one-third of all rebounds over the course of a Value Add Basketball Game if both teams are equal in rebounds.


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